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объекты Ростехнадзора
3D-printer for projects under key
In the conditions of world financial crisis it is difficult to adjust manufacture, but ideas which expenses on erection of low habitation, roads and other small objects, in particular, presume to cut down at this particular time can appear and take root. In given article transition from jet usual printers (2D) to three-dimensional printers (3D-printers) is considered.
Carrying over of 2D-objects of the small size from the real world in the computer and back became fast, simple and cheap thanks to a wide circulation of printers and scanners.
For example, in “Челябэнергопроект” the scanner of format A3, printers of format А3 is applied to design works (scanning and the press) and the colour plotter of format A1. 

Applied in Челябэнергопроект for design works the colour plotter of format A1 Hewlett-Packard DesignJet 130
Applied in “Челябэнергопроект” for design works the colour plotter of format A1 Hewlett-Packard DesignJet 130

It is necessary to notice that 2D-object carrying over through the computer is possible.
For example, in “Челябэнергопроект” the copier of format A0 is applied to design works (copying).

The copier of format A0 Ricoh FW780 applied in Челябэнергопроект for design works
The copier of format A0 Ricoh FW780 applied in “Челябэнергопроект” for design works
However in case of similar carrying over of 3D-objects all is more difficult.
Really, even computer modelling of not typical 3D-objects well only to experts, and in rather expensive packages, for example, in package Autodesk 3DS Max which costs about 200 000 roubles.

House model in Autodesk 3DS Max, created by the expert from Челябэнергопроект
House model in Autodesk 3DS Max, created by the expert from “Челябэнергопроект”
Much more simplifies process of carrying over of objects of the real world in computer special 3D-scanners. For example, at designing of some streets of Moscow use of the special mobile laser scanner which, passing on city streets is planned, will give out 3D-model.
Carrying over of 3D-model to the real world is possible only by means of the expensive equipment on manufacture or in laboratory, but as in house conditions.
Whether creation of real object on its 3D-model will pay off, what for it is necessary? The main requirement for the industry is a fast manufacturing of prototypes. Really, the probability of considerable depreciation of working out of a difficult product in the presence of possibility to look to engineers, and also the customer on a real product (or its breadboard model), instead of on an album of drawings, clear only to corresponding experts is high.
Besides, on a breadboard model it is possible to carry out tests still before the definitive variant of a product will be ready. Moreover, prototypes allow to carry out such tests which on a finished article you will not spend. For example, it is possible to use transparent plastic model of water supply at designing of not typical constructions, such as rotating skyscraper in Moscow. But the main thing that such model can be made very quickly that presently high speeds very important. We will notice, there is a whole industry of fast prototyping (rapid prototyping) which just and is engaged in working out and uses of technologies of the volume press for these purposes.
The following step – fast manufacture. Already now some technologies of fast prototyping allow to produce ready subjects from various materials. This ideal decision for small series manufactures as standard technical process gives the chance to make (in reasonable limits) everything for rather small time. Besides 3D-press some of technologies allow to produce quickly casting moulds, and further production is already known. It is possible to draw a parallel with digital devices on the basis of FPGA (field-programmable gate array), i.e. on the basis of the programmed logic, made the present revolution in electronics. Technology FPGA allows to describe electronic schemes on the computer, and then quickly to realise all described in a standard microcircuit. And it is possible to make the microprocessor, the microcontroller, etc. practically in house conditions. Let's consider the first step of development of 3D-printers for building is a creation of machine tools with programmed control. They are called CNC machines (CNC – computer numerically controlled, or, the machine tool with numerical programmed control). These devices can cope directly from CAD-programs and to cut out, cut and drill in a material of model which in these programs are developed. Materials almost any – from plastic or a tree to soft metals (bronze, aluminium).
For example, a ruler of machine tools MDX from company Roland. We will notice that Roland delivers to the machine tools a special piezoelectric scanning head which allows to do return transformation – to translate real subjects in computer 3D-models.

The machine tool with the numerical programmed control, applied to drawing of 3D-images on wooden products (the first step of development of 3D-printers for building)
The machine tool with the numerical programmed control, applied to drawing of 3D-images on wooden products (the first step of development of 3D-printers for building)

CNC-machine tools share on three principal views: turning, milling and routers (routers) (us interest last kind). We will notice that machines with four degrees freedom combining to certain degree of possibility milling and lathes are issued also. To use this technics it is possible for direct manufacturing of objects on 3D-models, for an engraving, modelling, together with for preparation of casting moulds that essentially expands area of their application.
Let's consider the second step of development of 3D-printers for building is a working out of laser and jet technology of the 3D-press.
Let's consider ways of a laser printing.
The first way: the ultra-violet laser gradually, pixel behind pixel, lights liquid photopolymer, or photopolymer is lighted by an ultra-violet lamp through a photo mask varying with a new layer, thus it hardens and turns to strong enough plastic.
The second way – laser sintering: the laser the plastic arts burns out in a powder from easily fused, a layer behind a layer, a contour of the future detail after that the superfluous powder is shaken from a ready detail.
The third way – lamination – a detail is created from a considerable quantity of layers of a working material which are gradually imposed against each other and stick together, thus the laser cuts out in everyone a contour of section of the future detail.
Let's consider ways of an ink jet printing.
The first way: at cooling – the distributing head squeezes out material hardening on a cooled platform-basis of a drop heatedthermoplastic which quickly stiffen and stick together with each other, forming layers of the future object the second way – polymerisation of photopolymeric plastic under the influence of an ultra-violet lamp (the way is similar on previous, but plastic hardens under the influence of an ultraviolet).
The third – pasting or sintering in powder form a material – the same as laser sintering, only a powder sticks together with the gluing substance arriving from a special jet head, thus it is possible to reproduce detail colouring, using binding substance of various colours.
Let's consider the jet 3D-press in more details as, obviously, it easier to adapt for building.
Elementary of processes of the jet volume press is so-called. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Idea of FDM is simple – the distributing head squeezes out on a cooled platform-basis of a drop heated thermoplastic (as a material almost any industrial thermoplastic can be used). Drops quickly stiffen and stick together with each other, forming layers of the future object (the press here is conducted layers). Technical process FDM allows with enough split-hair accuracy (with the minimum thickness of a layer to 0,12 mm) to produce completely details of enough big size ready to use (to 600x600x500 mm). The basic manufacturer of the equipment for FDM is company Stratasys.
Let's notice that NASA considers technology FDM as the candidate on “space factory”. Really, in space expedition it is impossible to take unlimited quantity of spare parts to all equipment, besides to place high-grade mechanical shop on a spaceship it is impossible. And here to load initial plastic and the special compact car which can make of this plastic a demanded detail – probably.

The FDM-printer applied to manufacturing of 3D-products from plastic (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)
The FDM-printer applied to manufacturing of 3D-products from plastic (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)

Other technology is working out Polyjet from company Objet Geometries. Here the jet head is used for the press by photopolymeric plastic. The model also is printed a layer behind a layer, and the permission in a layer makes 600x300 dpi, and the thickness of a layer can be finished all to 0.16 mm. Each printed layer polymerizesin firm plastic under the influence of an ultra-violet lamp. Basically, it is similar on ste litho bibliography (historically the very first way of the laser printing, which essence in that, at illumination by ultra-violet light the liquid photopolymer which is in a working zone of the printer, hardens and turns to strong enough plastic), but much faster, more precisely, easier and more compactly. Thus the price for printers Objet several times is less, than at installations for ste litho bibliography. The similar system under name InVison is made also by the company 3D Systems. It is necessary to notice that systems of fast prototyping last years quickly become cheaper.
And one more technology of an ink jet printing, but with use of powder materials, has been developed in the Massachusetsky Institute of technology, and company Z Corporation became the first and basic manufacturer of the equipment. It 3D printers are rather inexpensive (from 10 000$ to 30 000$) and work essentially faster the above described devices. A technology essence following – a special jet head (by the way, adapted from jet printers Hewlett-Packard) sprayed on a powder material gluing substance. As a powder usual plaster or starch is used. In “splashed” places the powder sticks together and forms model. The press, as well as in the previous cases, goes layers, and the superfluous powder is shaken in the end. However there is also an essential difference – this printer can use gluing liquid about addition of pigmentary dyes – so, to print colour models. In the colour printer from Z Corporation 4 jet heads with ink-glues of primary colours so the received model can reproduce not only the form, but also colouring (that is, a structure) the virtual prototype are established. Plaster models turn out not so strong, but they can be used as casting moulds.

The architectural 3D-composition from a powder (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)
Architectural 3D-composition from a powder (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)

It is necessary to note the interesting variant of the above described powder ink jet printing developed by company ProMetal. Its firm production (so-called Direct Metal Process) works similarly, only instead of a plaster powder will be applied a metal powder. Then the formed product burns in the furnace so the powder either is alloyed itself, or communicates more fusible metal (as well as at laser sintering of metal powders).

A 3D-detail made of metal on technology ProMetal (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)
3D-detail made of metal on technology ProMetal (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)

Certainly, for building needs the way of pasting in powder form a material most of all approaches. In this case in the tank similar to a cartridge in jet printers, cement, polymeric a material, a ceramic solution, or other liquid materials is located; the measured quantities of building materials are squeezed out through apertures, forming a design set by a file – 3D-model in the computer. This tank can move over a building site by means of the crane with programmed control.
Such essentially new kind of the automated building technics which in the long term can be applied in large-scale building of houses and other structures, has been developed by researchers from the Center of automation of “know-how” at the Californian university on the basis of jet and 3D-printers and cars for fast prototyping.
Plans of these researchers include working out of cars for creation both one-storeyed, and many-storeyed houses.

The many-storeyed house (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)
The many-storeyed house (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)

The car for the 3D-press concrete (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)
The car for the 3D-press concrete (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)

It is possible to draw a parallel with building of the house from wreaths (layers) which in turn consist from profiled a bar. However, first, the 3D-printer is in a case interesting us on a building site (instead of in shop in which are cut profiled bars). Secondly, the press is carried out from a CAD-file with 3D-model (instead of assemblage on an album of usual drawings). Thirdly, building elements considerably the smaller size (powder building materials) in comparison profiled a bar also incorporate to the help of a special material (cement). At last, giving of a building material (concrete and profiled a bar accordingly) is carried out not by builders, and by means of the robot-crane.

The cottage from profiled a bar in the Chelyabinsk region, Челябэнергопроект under construction under the project (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)
Cottage from profiled a bar in the Chelyabinsk region, “Челябэнергопроект” under construction under the project (the second step of development of 3D-printers for building)

As developers of this new way of building mark, the press does by concrete erection of new objects of CAD-files faster, exact (to millimetre) cheap and less polluting a building site. A waste and power expenses also decrease.
The following step of development of 3D-printers for building – form and content association.
Really, considered 3D-press allows to create simultaneously both the form, and the maintenance. The electronic stuffing here is meant the maintenance. Researchers from the Center of automation of “know-how” at the Californian university specify that it is possible to insert deformation gauges into walls (strain gauges) and others “intellectual” components and also to change materials in various layers of a design. The sanitary technician, electric systems, a windows management, etc. also can be automated.

The wall with the built in electronic stuffing (the third step of development of 3D-printers for building)
Wall with the built in electronic stuffing (the third step of development of 3D-printers for building)

At university Loughborough the research group of fast manufacture works over way of creation of a structure up to level of armature and the built in furniture. Also works on projects on research of materials, bionics (biomimicry), by adaptive constructions and technologies for check and maintaining structures are conducted that many times over (till several years) reduces house creation under projects “turnkey” (it is necessary to notice that in company “Челябэнергопроект” create projects “turnkey”).
The considered technology has interested developers and engineers. “Our main interest is in making structures more efficient by controlling the amount and the distribution of material in the structure according to its needs” – the engineer from Buro Happold in London has told Jalal El-Ali.
The following step of development of 3D-printers for building are 3D-printers which can reproduce details of own design, that is replicate itself. Today it is quite realizable, and working out of such car is conducted by project RepRap, and the information on a design of the 3D-printer and the necessary software extends on conditions of licence GNU General Public Licence.

The 3D-printer (RepRap) from the polymer, capable to self-replication (the fourth step of development of 3D-printers for building)
The 3D-printer (RepRap) from the polymer, capable to self-replication (the fourth step of development of 3D-printers for building)

Association of such 3D-printer with a self-trained neural network can become that universal designer about whom mathematician John wrote a background Neumann half a century ago (on the basis of architecture Neumann's background modern personal computers) are constructed.
Thus, considered “the press” allows to make more economically difficult on a form and content (with “intellectual” a stuffing, furniture) colour building elements with high detailing and quality of processing of a surface it is direct on a CAD-file. Also by means of new technology the variation of structure of a material in an element of a design by use for creation of inside layers of different materials is possible.

Sources:
Afanasev K. 3D-printers, 2004 [http://www.3dnews.ru/peripheral/3d-print/]
Bowen T. As prefabrication sheds its off-the-rack image, automation via 3D printing threatens to transform conventional construction, 2007
[http://archrecord.construction.com/tech/techBriefs/0704dignews-2.asp]

The author: Челябэнергопроект
Date: 03/03/2009

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