We understand decision-making process support as a problem of risk-management of the company, namely – maintenance of conformity of these decisions to enterprise strategic targets, decrease in risks (losses) from various operations and increase of profitableness of business. Статьи
Difference of any design activity in comparison with the traditional consists that, as a rule, the project is carried out against current activity. Hence, the question on a choice of an optimum policy of realisation of the given directions of activity from the point of view of expenses and priorities will be a problem of risk-management and strategic management as a whole. Besides, hardly today exists though one design organisation which can effectively function without use of an information technology (IT). However use IT introduces with itself a new kind of the risks connected with threats of information security. Leak of the confidential data, viruses, hackers, a spam – all these problems cannot be avoided, as their existence is caused by application IT in business. Nevertheless these risks can be operated.
It would be desirable to underline also that, as risk-management of the project “turnkey” there should be a part of a uniform control system of risks in the organisation performing design works, any new project “turnkey” should be the next block of consideration in a uniform control system of risks at the enterprise as a whole. It excludes the negative moment of struggle against chronic risks directly at the moment of realisation of the concrete project “turnkey” raising thereby efficiency of its realisation.
From statement of some the problems set forth above predetermining that risk-management of the project “turnkey” represents activity not only within the limits of the project, but also within the limits of the design organisation as a whole, follows that preliminary gathering of the information should cover research as project “turnkey” and its characteristics, and internal and an environment, thus as in a cut of design activity, and chronological.
It is necessary to take also into consideration that in the environment of management of risks accuracy of in addition received data, and them informative from the point of view of possibility of development of adequate decisions in risk-management system is important not.
Let's consider the system approach to the risk-management organisation at the enterprise which assumes following methods of the decision of these problems:
- formation of the general policy of management by risks, definition of a comprehensible risk level, admissible losses;
- identification of risks and an estimation of their influence, ranging of groups of risks;
- definition of techniques of management by risks;
- fastening of technology requirements, an establishment of limits on operations, volumes of the resources, certain clients and group of clients, restriction of powers of employees;
- formation of the monitoring system of observance of the established requirements and procedures;
- the analysis of a current risk level, technological, administrative and financial indicators of the company;
- entering of updatings into the established requirements, limits and procedures.
At a system view on managerial process by risks and in the course of working out of techniques of an estimation of financial and technological risks there is obvious that fact that for construction of effective system of risk-management it is not enough to assign function of an estimation and the control of level of risks to one department of the company performing design works within the limits of projects “turnkey” and to give for this purpose software product with a corresponding mathematical apparatus. Procedures of identification and an estimation of risks should be integrated practically into all processes of the design organisation (as projects are carried out “turnkey”): Supply, an estimation of quality of production, contractual relations with suppliers, stocks of materials, conformity to requirements of supervising bodies (that observance of technological usages and the established procedures proves to be true corresponding certificates), (that equipment repair, work with shots, activity in the financial markets, work with customers of the design documentation, IT support, budgeting etc.
proves to be true the certificate of quality ISO 9001:2008),
Obviously, for automation of managerial process by risks the set of the initial data, the automated procedures of gathering and storage of the information, techniques of processing of this information is required. Therefore, if to speak about the effective decision taking into account high cost of working out it is represented logical that automation of problems of risk-management should dare within the limits of the project of integration, consolidation of the data of the enterprise, i.e. the question of automation of management should be considered by risks more widely, as automation of processes of forecasting, management and the analysis in the basic directions of activity of the design organisation taking into account risk-management problems in these directions and on the enterprise as a whole. Certainly, from the point of view of personnel and financial resources projects such are costly.
At the same time, avoiding scale integration projects, the companies quite often address to workings out and the software products focused on certain urgent problems of business. For example, it can be reception of reports for work with reservoir agencies or reports for distribution of expenses on the centers of expenses. After it is quite often found out that it is impossible to expand such workings out for the decision of again arising similar problems, or completion will demand derivation of considerable resources, i.e. they do not possess flexibility and scalability.
At the decision of a problem of automation of risk-management within the limits of integration two basic variants can be offered:
2) Creation of analytical base of the enterprise on the basis of corporate Storehouse of given
The storehouse of the data is the subject-oriented, adhered at the right time and unchangeable meeting of the significant, coordinated, checked up and consistent data adhered at the right time for support of process of acceptance of operating decisions. It is a database where the data of atomic level from incompatible sources unites and structured.
Data from diverse systems-sources, including, the user data, by means of special procedures of clearing and loading will be organised and located in databases so that at any moment of them it was possible to take for analysis carrying out.
Construction of model of the data and Storehouse filling occurs depending on the problems put by company management, for example, management by risks, budgeting, CRM-system construction, drawing up of the financial reporting. Many initial data for these directions the general, but reports can be demanded with different periodicity, with different depth of sample, with a different set of indicators.
For example, the system of the corporate reporting on the basis of product Business Information Warehouse (BW) to company SAP AG helps the decision of a sufficient wide range of problems – beginning from support of processes of marketing before formation of the administrative information for the top management. Regarding the decision of problems risk of management the storehouse of the data helps to improve processes basically in two areas – Enterprise Risk Management and Customer Risk Management. For example, for Customer Risk Management accuracy in area fraud management (decisions for struggle against swindle) and churn management (an estimation of threat of outflow of clients) raises.
For risk-management Storehouse of the data – the most effective decision, considering uncertainty of the future requirements. I.e. at revealing of any risk factor there is a necessity of its analysis, formation of reports, cuts, applications of a certain mathematical apparatus. Besides, functionality of the analytical appendices developed on the basis of technology of construction of Storehouses of the data, will allow to organise planning of various business scenarios, consideration of several variants of the budget and stress-testing carrying out.
Or, for example, the integrated platform for management of risks with use of financial Storehouse of the data “Contour Corporation” companies Intersoft Lab, promotes the decision of following problems:
- Management of limits on counterparts (including, on holdings, counterparts separately, concrete operation of the counterpart);
- An estimation of risk of liquidity a method of an estimation of payment streams;
- An unloading of the standardised forms of account for their further estimation in risk-management system “ИНЭК”.
Let's consider distinctive features of the analysis on the basis of the data from storehouse of the data.
It is necessary to pay attention to the basic distinctive features of the analysis on the basis of Storehouse of the data from the analysis on the basis of various registration systems. For example, the information on term of operation of the equipment/tool is conducted by enterprise branch in the register where the accession number, the name and the responsible person is specified. At the same time, cost, volume of stocks of the given equipment are considered by division responsible for supply at head office, registers are conducted under the model name. To estimate level of deterioration of the equipment, for example, to receive the report on stocks of key devices in a cut on terms of actual operation, it is necessary to request reports of branches under the name and term of operation of devices. The branch on the basis of the registers will reduce the data. In division of head office according to branches will generate the summary report.
It is the most widespread scheme of preparation of administrative reports, and for all its lacks are known:
1) Operational risk. People can be mistaken or something to forget. Than reliability of the data more than handwork and the more the persons involved in drawing up of the report, the more low.
2) rather long term of preparation.
3) If the risk-manager will consider necessary to request the additional information, for example, in which works, on what projects the equipment time most part has been involved, it is necessary to repeat a full cycle of preparation of reports. It that will demand an additional substantiation and the coordination with a management since not planned repeated preparation of reports is connected with increase in expenditures of labour of employees of branches.
4) The decision to change the period in the report since a quarter for a month too will demand efforts of employees
The storehouse of the data solves these problems. By means of inquiries to the data the analyst can answer, for example, following questions:
- As the average indicators of market risk will change at essential jumps of the prices at raw stock exchanges;
- How much certain parametres on the average deviate the set planned sizes (the income on a product, expenses for outsourcing, delivery terms …) in case of technological failures;
- Default level under financial obligations of counterparts how much decreases at carrying out of certain actions (for example, outgoing calls of debtors employees of the call-center);
- As level of credit risk changes at interaction with reservoir agencies;
- What set of products is bought by the most profitable clients;
- What tendencies of seasonal fluctuations of demand for certain products, groups of products;
- As the sales volume of a ruler of products has changed in comparison with the last month, in comparison with the same month last year;
- As the cost price of a product after change of the supplier of a material has changed “A”;
- Under what articles of the budget the over-expenditure is stably observed.
Let's consider clearing of the data and loading of the data in storehouse.
At the same time expectation that experts will come was an error of some initiators of projects of construction of Storehouses of the data, will establish wonderful software product and there will be an analysis. Such important part of the project as clearing and loading of the data, it was not given due value. At the same time, maintenance of quality of the loaded data, a writing of correct procedures of the coordination and loading of the data is impossible without participation of responsible divisions of the organisation – the customer.
Considering scale of the project, the description of structure of the data, consultations, testing of procedures will demand expenses of time of employees, and both at a stage of introduction of Storehouse of the data, and in the subsequent at its operation, for example, at occurrence of new problems or sources of the data. One of the most widespread problems which should be solved to developers, – different standards in the initial data, different principles of entering of the information and an error. For example, the client “Open Society the Siberian investment center “in other source it will be specified as “The Siberian investment center of Open Society”. In storehouse it there should be one client.
One more question which should be solved at Storehouse construction: as changes will be made to the data already loaded into Storehouse if in one of sources the error is found out and corrections are made. And, corrections in system-source can be brought as by storno-conductings, and simple updating.
Vasily Novikov advises at introduction of Storehouse given to pay attention to following questions:
- Readiness of experts of business divisions for cooperation with IT-service (in particular, in the field of adjustment of the primary data both on accounting, and under the item account);
- Presence and qualitative conducting the primary data which is subject to an unloading in data warehouse from sources of the data;
- Presence is enough qualified personnel or the firm-developer, capable to realise unloading of the data in data warehouse.
Let's consider developers of software products.
The basic developers of the software products applied in technology of construction of Storehouse of the data, namely the tools which are carrying out certain function (extraction, transformation and loading of the data, a data storage or the analysis of the data) are more low resulted:
- Hyperion Solutions
- Business Objects
- SAS Institute
- SAP AG
- Intersoft Lab
It is necessary to turn attention to presence in a command of the company of strong experts. The most important are:
1. Account Management
2. Business analysts
3. Project Management
4. Experts in transformation of given
5. Developers of reports and analytical appendices
1. Presence of branch model of the data allows to save time, but it is necessary to be ready that the volume of completion of model of the data will be considerable. It is here again important, that the supplier of storehouse of the data could finish operatively model of the data under requirements of the customer;
2. Mutual relation with customers/account management/management of expectations;
3. The presence of highly motivated business sponsor – it is one of the key moments;
4. On what is important to pay attention: large storehouses given – volume more 1TB demand presence of additional qualification from the company-developer”.
Let's consider analytical appendices and decisions of the companies-developers for risk of management.
Ready analytical appendices basically are developed for the financial organisations and for an estimation of financial risks. Technological risks in the majority can be identified only at branch or enterprise level. Now, for example, for technological risks of branch, it is a little such specialised workings out. Considering that risk-management – rather new direction in business, it is possible to expect development of such decisions in the future.
At introduction of Storehouses of the given foreign developers there is a question, how much they correspond to the Russian practice. On a question about customization, volume of completion taking into account the Russian requirements of model of the data of preadjusted storehouse Oracle Financial Services Application (OFSA) the head of group of advisers for sales of business appendices answers Drobyshevsky А, Oracle:
“By our experience, the model of the data of the preadjusted storehouse which is a part of decision Oracle Financial Services Application (OFSA), corresponds to the Russian practice approximately on 95%. Moreover, on the basis of this preadjusted model (with some completion) problems specific to the Russian practice have been realised. For example, on the basis of OFSA the module of the obligatory reporting of banks before the Central Bank of the Russian Federation has been developed. The necessary volume of completion and customization of models is estimated after research of problems and the requirements of concrete bank used by it of techniques (for example, a package of the administrative reporting or a budgeting technique), and also the analysis of its sources of the data is conducted. On the average on the Russian introductions the volume of completions of model makes about 5% from its general volume. In a case if the problems put by banks, leave for storehouse OFSA subject domains, our experience shows that the storehouse is easily expanded and is capable to solve almost any tasks in view”.
Let's consider estimation of cost of the project of introduction of Storehouse of the data.
To estimate cost of the project of introduction of Storehouse of the data difficult, considering heterogeneity of business processes of the companies, their size, quantity and quality of the sources, different level of technical maintenance.
Parametres and the factors influencing cost of the project of introduction of Storehouse of the data:
The structure of cost of the project of working out and introduction can be divided into following components:
1. Hardware maintenance (a server, system of a data storage, etc.);
2. Licences for the system software (DBMS, means of extraction and transformation of data ETL, means of formation of reports etc.);
3. Consulting and introduction (gathering and the analysis of business requirements, designing and working out of processes of transformation of the data, designing or completion of model of the data).
Important enough for a project estimation in advance to estimate cost of support and the further development of the project.
Project cost, as well as for any project of introduction of new system, depends on the size of the enterprise and quantity of users etc. Besides the typical parametres influencing the price, important to allocate the most important for projects of working out and introduction of storehouse of the data. The most significant for definition of cost of the project:
1. Quantity of sources of the data;
2. Quality of the data given in sources (completeness of the data, a correctness of the data, a coordination of the data between sources etc.);
3. Quantity of solved problems for business.
Let's consider the basic risks which can appear critical in the project of introduction of Storehouse of the data.
It would be desirable to note the basic moment at construction of Storehouse of the data is an interest of top management of the company in the project.
By an expert estimation of international advisers IBM, only in two of ten cases the project was successful, if was initiated by IT-division, instead of company management. Interest of top management should be expressed in formation of working group of experts of different divisions, and occupied only on the project, in understanding priority of project problems, in granting of all necessary data and resources in limiting deadlines. If it does not occur, the first references of developers behind explanatories, information structurization at the analysis of sources of the data will lead to bureaucratic correspondence with division – “the owner” the data in a source. This process, expanding, will lead to avalanche increase in terms of the project, necessary resources, and as a result will displease a management. As time and again it was already mentioned, in the course of integration of the data the basic attention should be given the coordinated actions of various divisions of the company.
One more important factor in the course of creation of corporate Storehouse of the data – constant changes of business. Changing the product line, the organizational structure of the company, increasing or decreasing the number of offices changing production technology, etc. Sometimes, it all changed at the same time ... The possibility of such changes and, accordingly, their reflection in the process of constructing and operating the data warehouse must also negotiate with developers.
Let's consider management of changes of information systems.
Efficient control changes is one of the major factors of stable work of any information system (IS), without dependence from its scale and qualitative characteristics.
To understand, as how to protect, it is necessary to know an exact condition of system on all parametres. Besides, introduction of the centralised control system by changes allows to make IS transparent, alienated, as much as possible independent of the human factor and more adaptive to changes of the business purposes.
Not less important question directly influencing efficiency politicians of management by changes, is connected with an involvement of divisions into decision-making process and distribution of their roles. The ideal system of command work of departments consists in accurate definition of zones of responsibility, functions and interaction regulations.
In the Russian validity inconsistency of actions of divisions and low enough involvement of experts in information security is observed.
Other prominent aspect characterising a management efficiency by changes corporate IS, the drawing up and demands acceptance order is. As a matter of fact, demands initiate changes, and stability of work of the IT-infrastructure depends on their correct processing and the control over execution as from the point of view of conformity to business processes, and information security of the organisations as a whole.
1. Polyakova S. IT-platform for risk-management//Financial director. – 2008 [http://www.klerk.ru/soft/articles/97802]
2. Agafonova I.P. Construction of effective system of risk-management at the enterprise at realisation of the innovative project//Management in Russia and abroad. – 2003. – #4. – P.103 [http://www.mevriz.ru/articles/2003/4/1720.html]
3. Management of IT-risks [http://www.klerk.ru/soft/articles/37864]
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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