It is known, today thanks to equating of electronic documents paper the design organisation sends to the customer the prepared documentation in electronic form is more often. Besides, to have possibility to win the tender, the design organisation is simply obliged to get the electronic digital signature (EDS), differently the paper variant of documents can is simple “to get lost” and not to reach potential customers. Статьи
Today with EDS already you will surprise nobody – within the limits of corporate information systems it is used everywhere. Nevertheless, application of EDS is limited till now by limits of one company or holding, and an exchange of documents between two different organisations, at obvious advantages of the electronic correspondence (neither delays, nor express and post intermediaries) while remains more traditional – paper. Whether the exchange signed by means of EDS electronic documents between the enterprises is possible?
To begin with we will understand, than differs EDS from the usual signature.
The electronic digital signature (EDS) – the requisite of the electronic document intended for protection of the given electronic document from updating, received as a result of cryptographic transformation of the information with use of the closed key of the electronic digital signature and allowing to identify the owner of the certificate of a key of the signature, and also to establish absence of distortion of the information in the electronic document.
The traditional signature on the paper document urged to carry out following functions: first, to confirm authorship of the signature, secondly, to prove its authenticity, thirdly, to guarantee an invariance and completeness of the document after signing. Better to say, genuineness and identifiability are basic properties of any signature which should be present irrespective of its type and be provided de facto. Until recently the signature and the press seemed is unique infallible remedies for document vising. However world practice of use of the autographic signature says that the given procedure possesses weight of lacks which can be used to the detriment. Various measures were taken for prevention of it throughout many years – for example, the autographic writing of a name and a surname near to the signature was used, the special paper with several degrees of protection against fakes which could serve as the guarantor of authenticity as the document, and the signature, etc. was applied. It is excessive to say that these measures could not provide genuineness and identifiability of the signature completely. Besides, the usual signature possesses lacks which are inherent in any text written on a paper, – the hand from what the autograph will not correspond to the original form can tremble simply. Thus, lacks of the autographic signature on the paper document are obvious. It allows an occasion to reflect on transition to electronic document circulation with EDS.
Check of the electronic digital signature is anything other as process of acknowledgement of its authenticity in the electronic document. From here it is possible to draw a simple conclusion: the electronic digital signature, is an authenticator of the owner of the certificate of a key of the signature.
Let's consider a principle of action of EDS.
Let's consider the most widespread scheme for the today, based on use of the asymmetrical algorithms, allowing to provide the maximum reliability and security of the signed data. The electronic digital signature can guarantee the genuineness and identifiability at the expense of use at once two keys – opened which is responsible for identification, and closed, responsible authentication. Any participant of an exchange of the electronic documents signed EDS, can check up the validity of the signature by means of an open key accessible to it and to be convinced that the document original, and EDS belongs to that person who vised the document. In certificate of EDS containing the closed key, there is also an information on the author, the root center of certification and period of validity of the certificate. At signing it is put “time stamp” to define, whether there corresponds date of the signature to certificate period of validity. It is one of steps of check of reliability of the signature. The electronic document assured by means of EDS, it is impossible to forge, and it allows to provide its authenticity and an invariance. It turns out that functionality of EDS in all corresponds to the paper analogue and even surpasses it in reliability. Therefore use of electronic document circulation between the organisations becomes more perspective.
Let's consider a way to EDS.
Six-seven years ago absence of legal basis of EDS and possibilities of worthy technical realisation of an exchange of electronic documents with elektronno-digital signatures was the main reason on which electronic document circulation between the organisations had no wide circulation. Legal basis of EDS was provided with the federal law from January, 10th, 2002 # 1 “About the elektronno-digital signature” (further – the law “About EDS”). Which has fixed concept of legally significant electronic document circulation. Certainly, the law as it quite often happens, has resolved contradictions not so much, how many became a basis for new. Nevertheless legally significant electronic document circulation in work of the several companies entering into one structure, is easily realised on the basis of the regulations registered in the law and fixing validity of EDS in holding. In an exchange case electronic documents between the foreign organisations it is enough to mention a condition use EDS in contractual documents and to provide mutual trust to signature tools (use of uniform software products) and the certifying center which gave out keys. The technology of an exchange of electronic documents from the moment of acceptance of the federal law about EDS also was not at a stop. Today it is possible to allocate various variants of an exchange with electronic documents as between the firms entering into one holding, and between the independent organisations-partners.
Let's consider application of EDS in holding.
Let's result some examples of an exchange of electronic documents with EDS between various counterparts.
Within the limits of one holding the exchange of documents can be carried out as on a vertical – from the subordinate organisation to higher and back, and across – between the single-level organisations. Efficiency of management, therefore an exchange of documents directly depends on speed of movement of documents also plays not last role in holding development. We will consider movement, for example, such electronic document, as the order, on vertical structure of holding.
Order life cycle begins in parent organisation where it directly is created, coordinated and affirms. Then the document subscribes EDS the general director, is exported to the structured electronic document and on various channels leaves in the affiliated organisations or branches. If in the mentioned organisations systems of electronic document circulation the order starting with parent organisation with EDS is imported to system of Electronic Document Management (EDM) also are established and further already on its channels reaches employees. If in the considered organisations it is not used EDM (for example when it is a question of remote branches or affiliated companies) on a gain e-mail on which the document in the structured kind is dispatched to employees of the organisation comes. Workers by means of special supplements can familiarise with the incoming document text, see its attributes and check up reliability of all digital signatures.
Thus, the order can be in electronic form informed to any employee of holding, thus the addressee free can as to familiarise with its maintenance, and, thanks to possibilities of EDS, to make sure of authenticity of the order. It gives all grounds to trust such document on a level with the paper. Thus necessity to translate it in a traditional kind completely disappears, to make multiple copies, scan etc.
In holding can similarly pass a return exchange of documents, for example the coordination of contractual documents of the affiliated organisation in the head company.
First of all documents are created and coordinated in affiliated company. This process also can pass in frameworks of system of electronic document circulation, and it can differ from EDM, introduced in parent organisation. Further contractual documents subscribe EDS and go to corresponding department of the operating company. For this purpose besides the contract draught is exported to the structured electronic document of an open format and by any convenient way is sent in the operating company. In corresponding department documents are imported to system of electronic document circulation together with all EDS and further on a typical route go on the coordination. As a result contractual documents subscribe EDS the top-manager of holding, then again are exported to an open format and go back to branch. Thus, in both organisations contractual documents will not have a divergence as EDS guarantees their invariance. Besides, necessity to transfer documents on paper carriers is excluded.
Let's consider procedure of an exchange by documents between “strangers” the companies.
Now we will consider procedure of an exchange by documents between two foreign companies on an example of the coordination of the technical project (TP) on performance of works between the organisations-partners. The Company-customer prepares project TP and after it takes place a full cycle of the coordination, signs document EDS. Then TP goes to the company-executor. It occurs as follows: the structured document in an open format is created, it goes to the addressee in any accessible way (e-mail, ftp etc.) . The responsible manager gets acquainted with the maintenance of the project and list EDS and, in case of the consent, signs the document already the EDS. All it can be carried out with use of the utilities intended for work with structured documents and EDS. After the coordination at the executor project TP goes back to the customer. At occurrence of disagreements any organisation can disagree with the text of the project and make changes to its maintenance. Then the document will pass a new coil of the coordination.
Apparently, the electronic document that rejects necessity to print it on a paper is coordinated. Thus there are no bases not to trust document – EDS heads will confirm its authenticity, completeness and an invariance. The coordination passes quickly, without delays so, work can be begun, without waiting ТЗ in a paper kind.
Let's consider evolution of EDS.
As shows experiment of introduction of the new technologies, necessary they become when to them passes considerable, is possible even the most part of participants of process. Whether fault of that traditional mentality of domestic business or the stereotypes surrounding the electronic document and EDS, but the given technology in our country yet has not found mass application. Though thus in Russia there are branches absence in which electronic document circulation and EDS essentially constrains their development. It is excessive to say that the future – behind paperless document circulation. Certainly, certain steps to this direction are already made. In business negotiations digital channels by means of which the enterprises exchange electronic documents of the various importance already are everywhere used. Whether electronic documents sometime can is high-grade to replace the paper? The answer to this question will be given by time and practice of use of the electronic digital signature.
The person operating someone's resources under orders of the owner, should possess possibility to prove that the order executed by it has been received from the owner. The given problem became especially actual with the advent of electronic commerce where as a resource money on bank to the account of the owner acts. For its decision various schemes of the elektronno-digital signature have been offered. The first scheme EDS – RSA – has been developed still in the late seventies. However the problem of acknowledgement of authorship became actual so that the standard establishment, only in 1990th years was required, during explosive growth of a global network the Internet and mass distribution of electronic trade and rendering of services. For this reason standards of EDS to Russia and the USA have been accepted practically simultaneously, in 1994
Of the proposed schemes cryptology EDS proved the most successful scheme of RSA and El-Gamal. The first has been patented in the USA and a number of other countries (the patent on RSA has stopped the action more recently). The second has set of updatings which are rather inconvenient for patenting. Thus, scheme of EDS the Ale-gamalja remained generally free from patents. It possesses and variety of practical advantages: the size of blocks with which algorithms operate, and accordingly the size of EDS in it have appeared much less, than in RSA, at the same firmness. For this reason standards of EDS of Russia and the USA are based on the scheme the Ale-gamalja.
In schemes of symmetric (one-key) cryptography, in particular, in algorithms of enciphering, both participants of an information exchange divide one and totassiv from casual or pseudo-casual bits. Asymmetry of roles of the sender and the addressee in schemes of EDS demands presence of two closely connected keys: confidential (a signature key) and opened (a key of check of the signature). Strictly speaking, the second of them a key is not, as the key by definition is obliged to be confidential, so “an open key” – something like “dry water”. But the term has got accustomed in the literature, and we will use it.
Any scheme of EDS is obliged to define three following algorithms:
- generation of key pair for the signature and its check;
- signature checks.
Last achievements of the theory of computing complexity have shown that the shared problem of logarithm in the discrete fields, being base of specified scheme of EDS, cannot be considered as strong enough base. For example, the sizes of blocks carried to “safe” increase rather high rates. It has led to that standards of EDS of Russia and the USA in 2001 have been updated – are translated on elliptic curves. Schemes of EDS remained former, but as numbers with which they operate, not elements of final field GF (2n) or GF (p), and elliptic numbers – decisions of the equation of elliptic curves over the specified final fields now are used. The role of operation of erection of number in degree in a final field in the updated standards is carried out by operation of a capture of a multiple point of an elliptic curve – “multiplication” points on an integer.
1. Pesterev N. The digitized autograph [http://www.klerk.ru/soft/articles/79921]
2. Zagnetko A. Several considerations about the fate of EDS in Russia [http://www.connect.ru/article.asp?id=5627]
2. Wikipedia: The electronic digital signature [http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Электронная цифровая подпись]
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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