About 30 years in the world exists and the library of advanced experience ITIL (English IT-infrastructure Library – library of an infrastructure of an information technology), describing best of ways of the organisation of work of divisions put into practice or the companies which are engaged in granting of services in the field of an information technology develops. Its advantage consists that ITIL offers the approach, allowing to reach necessary balance between formalisation and a freedom of action. Each organisation is capable to define for itself role of IT in business and effective degree of the control over activity, proceeding from the general mission of the company and the politician. Статьи
The design organisations, as well as others, choosing the IT-product approaching for them, are guided by a price and quality parity. Meanwhile to orient among projects of automation offered in the market (CAD, systems of electronic document circulation and so forth) it is uneasy. There are the checked up western IT-decisions which reliability proves to be true conformity to the international quality standards (for example, AutoCAD). However, such software packages (the same AutoCAD costs as the domestic car) also cost expensive. There are also domestic automated systems, on the basis of the Russian software products, at times essentially winning on cost in comparison with the foreign competitors (for example, KOMPAS-3D). By what criteria of quality developers of the program are guided?
Let's consider classification of domestic IT-business.
All domestic IT-business can be divided into three big groups:
1. Manufacturers of hardware maintenance;
2. The companies creating software products and services for realisation mainly in home market;
3. The organisations focused for export.
Us last two sectors which from the point of view of competitiveness possess accurately expressed features interest.
The companies involved in the international division of labour (in the form of outsourcing, offshore programming and, to a lesser degree, trade of software), already sufficiently own all receptions of increase of competitiveness, beginning from the advanced business technologies and finishing standards of maintenance of quality. The unique problem which will rise before exporters of IT-products and services with arrival on the domestic market of the international corporations, is an acute shortage of qualified personnel of all levels, however, it is felt and realised already now. And here home market of software products and services, in turn, will be divided on two most parts. The companies providing execution of the state order (the volume of the state contracts makes to 40% of a turn of branch), to a limit make active the bargaining chip – an administrative resource – and will carry by the original noncompetitive decisions through years and decades. The same, whose business is not connected with state contracts, understand level of potential threat and have attended to introduction of modern administrative technologies and the quality standards.
Let's consider standardization.
What it for technologies and standards? Long time was considered that “a gold key” in the world of the big business the quality standards of series ISO 9000 are. However in sphere of IT-products and services (and first of all software workings out) are more highly appreciated specialised standards of group CMM (capability maturity model) – “The estimation and certification of a maturity of processes of creation and support of software and information systems” (ISO/ITC TR 15504). Standard CMM 15504 gives a basis for certification of processes of life cycle of software which can be used the organisations which are engaged in planning, management, supervision, the control and perfection of acquisition, delivery, working out, operation, development and support of software.
Standard CMM 15504 a series of standards ISO 9000, – maintenance of confidence of the consumer in a control system of quality of production of the supplier pursues the same aim, as. Simultaneously it gives to users a basis for an estimation of, whether potential suppliers possess the production potentialities meeting their requirements. Certification of processes on conformity to standard CMM 15504 allows user of software to define level of their maturity on a continuous scale in such a manner that the received indicators can be compared and if necessary to repeat their estimation. For example, the audits of quality based on ISO 9001:1994 and certifying processes of life cycle of software by a principle “offset/nezachet” such possibility do not give. Besides, the model described by standard CMM 15504, allows to pick up certification volume so that it covered not all processes used by an organizational unit, and only what cause interest.
Parts “The process approach” and “The system approach to administration managerial control” standard CMM 15504 concepts ISO of 2000 in the field of quality system answer. The reference model of the description, an estimation and certification of a maturity of processes of life cycle of production, the project or system in CMM 15504-2 is coordinated with ISO 12207:1995 “Information technology. Processes of life cycle of software”. 15504 working products presented in standard CMM, processes and their characteristics can be used also as a basis with a view of working out of model of an estimation of level of a maturity and improvement of processes of any other kind of activity. Moreover, CMM 15504 gives the inclusion mechanism in initially established list of additional working products and the processes necessary for realisation of a concrete kind of activity and, hence, for an estimation of level of a maturity “innovations” and this area as a whole.
Let's consider eight principles of success it agree ISO 9000.
Conceptual bases of system of administration managerial control are defined by quality in eight principles on which all family of standards ISO 9000 is based. In ISO 9000:2000 they are registered as “a universal and fundamental rule or the belief applied at a management and management by the organisation, the directed on continuous and long-term improvement of its productivity by orientation to consumers simultaneously with satisfaction requirements of other participating parties”. Here these eight principles:
1. Orientation of the organisation to the consumer (customer-focused organisation). Manufacturers should understand current and future requirements of the buyers and not only to meet desires of consumers, but also to aspire to surpass their expectations.
2. Leadership (leadership). The organisation management provides creation and maintenance of internal environment which allows employees to participate in achievement of strategic targets of the company to the full.
3. Personnel involving (involvement of people). The full involvement into activity of the company of employees of all levels promotes use of their abilities for the organisation blessing.
4. The process approach (process approach). The desirable result is reached more quickly when the connected resources and activity cope as process.
5. The system approach to administration managerial control (system approach to management). Administration managerial control by system of the interconnected processes within the limits of achievement of the set strategic target raises efficiency and productivity of work of the organisation as a whole.
6. Continuous improvement (continual improvement). Continuous perfection should be one of obligatory strategic problems of the company.
7. The approach to decision-making, factual (factual approach to decision making). Effective decisions are based on the analysis of the data.
8. Mutually advantageous relations with suppliers (mutually beneficial supplier relationship). The organisation and its suppliers are dependent from each other, and mutually advantageous relations raise their ability to make value.
Following to these principles promotes development of administrative culture, penetration of system of administration managerial control by quality into all kinds of activity of the organisation (TQM – total quality management) and, means, to maintenance of competitiveness of production, projects, systems and company services.
Let's consider levels of a maturity of system.
The development stage, or, in another way, level of a maturity of the company is characterised by a certain set of attributes which in aggregate allow to realise this or that business process more effectively. Therefore transition of the organisation performing design works, to higher level of a maturity represents a rational way of progressive improvement of any process. According to standard CMM 15504, all organisations depending on a stage of their development can be carried to one of six established levels of a maturity:
Level 0. Incomplete (“incomplete”). Process does not correspond to the appointment. Working products and results of process are absent or they cannot be revealed. The success of the project, as a rule, depends on vigour, talent and experience of several heads and executors. Processes at zero level are characterised by the unpredictability on terms because their structure, appointment and sequence of performance can vary in a random way depending on a current situation.
Level 1. Carried out (“performed”). As a whole process corresponds to the appointment, however it is impossible to plan and trace its performance strictly. Between employees of the organisation the arrangement on how and when this project should be realised operates. Also there are revealed working products of process that, in turn, testifies to achievement of objects in view.
Level 2. Operated (“managed”). The basic difference from the first level consists that now result of process are working products which correspond to requirements to quality at the set restrictions on time and resources. Besides, process can be planned and traced.
Level 3. Settled (“established”). Processes of life cycle of software at this level are standardised, they represent uniform technological system, obligatory for all divisions. On the basis of uniform technology of support and maintenance of quality of life cycle of software additional processes of a consecutive estimation of quality of products can be developed for each project taking into account their features. The management to each process should contain conditions, recommendations and procedures of its performance, the entrance and target data, the description of mechanisms of quality check of results, conditions and documents of end of processes, and also data on a role, responsibility and qualification of experts.
Level 4. Predicted (“predictable”). This level testifies to ability of the supplier to realise large-scale difficult projects in rigidly limited terms and with guaranteed high quality. Measures are developed to reveal and prevent defects and errors at all stages of life cycle of software. Management provides performance of processes according to current requirements to characteristics of quality of components and software as a whole. At this level the system of a detailed stage-by-stage estimation both technological processes of life cycle, and the most created software product and its components is applied. Universal techniques of a quantitative estimation of realisation of processes and their quality are developed and applied. Simultaneously with increase of complexity software and requirements to them management of projects because at performance of processes current updatings are reduced is improved and defects are eliminated. Results of processes become predicted on terms and quality because they are measured in a course of performance and realised within the limits of the set resource restrictions.
Level 5. Optimised (“optimising”). It is a maturity highest level. Priority there is a reduction of losses from casual defects and errors by revealing strong and weaknesses of used processes, and also the analysis of risks and deviations from the set requirements of the customer. This data is used for decrease in the cost price of life cycle difficult software. Quantitative reference points by efficiency of performance of process according to the organisation business purposes are established. Optimisation includes approbation of innovative ideas and technologies and change of inefficient processes for reduction in conformity with the set purposes and reference points.
Proceeding from the resulted classification, the majority of the Russian companies on level of a maturity of processes concern levels 2 and 3. Among the firms serving a state sector, alas, there are representatives and level 1, and even level 0. The organisations having behind shoulders successful international projects, can apply for level 3, and real leaders of the market pass (or have already passed) certification on conformity to the fourth and fifth levels. However it is necessary to consider that the given reference model in itself cannot be used for carrying out of reliable and reproduced certifications of a maturity of processes because of its insufficient detailed elaboration. It should be added by a universal set of corresponding indicators.
Let's consider necessity of conformity to the quality standards.
Now more and more participants of the market of working out of the software realise necessity of conformity to the international quality standards, and first of all standard CMMI (CMM Integrated) – to last word in evolution of standards of series CMM. The first of the Russian organisations certification under standard CMMI there has passed company Digital Design, it has occurred in January, 2003. And domestic company LUXOFT became unique IT-corporation in the world, the control system of which quality has passed certification on conformity to requirements of models SEI SW-CMM and SEI CMMI SW/SE the fifth level simultaneously.
If in 2006 the quantity of the Russian companies certificated on CMMI, did not exceed also two tens now almost weekly there are messages on certification all the new both new organisations. And these efforts are defensible – in the open competitive market the one who is is better organised, equipped and trained wins.
Let's consider the quality standards.
CMM 15504 it is in addition supported by group of the standards detailing separate stages and processes of life cycle which are expedient for applying to maintenance of functional safety and quality difficult software:
- ISO 12182:1998 “IT. Classification of software”;
- ISO 9126:1991 “IT. A software product estimation. Characteristics of quality and a management on their application”;
- ISO 14598-1-6:1998-2000 “a software product Estimation”;
- ISO 14756:1999 “IT. Measurement and an estimation of productivity of software of computer computing systems”;
- ISO 12119:1994 “IT. Requirements to quality and testing”;
- ISO 15846:1998 “ Process equipment. Processes of life cycle of software. Configuration management of software”;
- ISO 14764:1999 “IT. Support of software”;
- ISO 15910:1999 “IT. The user documentation of software”;
- ISO 6592:2000 “A management under the documentation for computing systems”;
- ISO 9294:1990 “ Process equipment. IT. The Control directive software documenting”.
Certification of processes of life cycle of software will allow buyers and customers:
- To reveal the risks connected with a real maturity of the contractor, to the contract conclusion;
- In advance to provide necessary measures on a case of occurrence of brave event;
- By means of quantitative criteria to estimate conformity of a maturity of potential suppliers to requirements of the business, to the established requirements and estimated cost of project of software.
It should be noted that although the main activity of the company “Челябэнергопроект” the certificate of quality ISO 9001:2008, performance of design works is received, in staff there are the programmers developing small programs for daily use by designers.
1. Masalovich A. Russian IT on the way to world standards//Adviser. – #5 [http://www.c2f.ru/online/769/?article=47]
2. Bulkin D. The IT companies should give vent to employees?//CNews. – 2006 [http://www.cnews.ru/reviews/index.shtml?2006/07/21/206386_1]
3. Wikipedia: ITIL [http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITIL]
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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