In section it is told about the newest concept of the building based on use of non-polluting natural materials and aspiration to keep invariable environment both in the course of building, and at the subsequent operation – green development.
Green development – the newest concept of building based on use of non-polluting natural materials and aspiration to keep invariable environment both in the course of building, and at the subsequent operation.
For the first time about green development have started talking some years ago. This term means building or other development of territories based on the friendly relation to the nature.
The purpose of green development
– creation of favorable conditions for a life, work and leisure of people at the minimum influence on the nature and preservation of existing ecological equilibrium. Such balance can be reached by a skilful combination in the building project of the thought over architectural concept, resource saving technologies, natural building materials and, the most important thing, the responsible relation to the nature.
Green development represents a complex of standards and measures on building of buildings and the device of the city landscapes which application provides the minimum influence of a site of building and elements of an erected building on the nature that, in turn, promotes balance preservation between human wants and environment possibilities.
Standards of green development urged to improve such indicators of building and building operation, as quality of air indoors, the control over emission of harmful substances in atmosphere, economy of power resources, efficiency of the use of sources of water, restriction and processing of a household waste and dust, preservation and multiplication green plantings and natural conditions of dwelling of animals and birds, maintenance of economic well-being and social health of the population.
All these requirements can be satisfied by a careful choice of a place of the building, in details worked plan of development of a site, application resource saving technologies, the harmonious organisation of internal space of the house, use of non-polluting building and finishing materials (preferably local manufacture or an origin that allows to avoid environmental contamination by a transport waste), and also a responsible approach to management and building operation.
The demand of ecologically harmonious objects in the Russian market of the real estate will grow day by day. First of all similar demand will concern Moscow and Moscow Region which under the basic problem factors – population density, deficiency of the ground areas, water and power resources, the volume of a household waste and intensity of environmental contamination, – promptly come nearer to sad indicators of leading world megacities and industrial regions.
For use in apartments only it is possible to name a quarter of building materials completely safe (by expert estimations). All the others can pose serious threat and do considerable harm to health of people. Really, the statistics of the World organisation of public health services specifies that in city non-productive premises air in 4-6 times is dirtier, than in the street. The basic contribution to this pollution is brought by building and finishing materials, and also furniture.
Window “double-glazed windows” have excellent noise insulation and power saving up properties. But in them there is no ventilating backlash that leads to infringement of gas structure in premises located in houses of typical building ventilation in which was projected under “old windows”. Hence, at installation “packages” the special ventilating valve is necessary.
Harm of a plastic profile (made of polyvinylchloride (PVC)) is a myth. Really, products from PVC surround us everywhere: vinyl wall-paper, linoleum, the household and digital technics, toys, ware, sanitary pipes. PVC can be a source of harmful substances dioxin and phthalates only at burning, that is at temperature more than 200 degrees. At temperatures to 60 degrees from PVC it is not allocated practically anything.
Window PVC-PROFILE in a normal situation is safe, but the premise where it is established is formal, harmless it is impossible to name. The reason of popularity of plastic windows is absence of adequate technology at cost. For example, wooden windows with double-glazed windows use units, as they the expensive.
Eco-floor – a floor which does not give issue of chemical substances in premise atmosphere (that is has no chemical smell). It can be and a laminate, and carpeting, and linoleum. Certainly, the preference is given to a parquet, however it is necessary to remember that the varnish or mastic make considerable impact on allocation of harmful substances in atmosphere.
Linoleum let out basically from PVC. Danger can represent as also glue which is used for linoleum packing.
Laminates from a cheap segment often are the formaldehyde source, more expensive laminates are almost safe. Using floors from a natural stone or ceram granite it is necessary to make radiological examination and examination on radon.
Quick-drying superplastic putty subsequently allocate a phenol considerable quantity. Dry mixes for facades categorically cannot be used in premises.
It is more preferable to choose wall-paper paper, and glues – on starched or on casein to a basis. Flizelinovye wall-paper all the same synthetic, and they is less preferable to repair in apartments.
It is necessary to pay attention on glass wallpaper. Abroad, in particular in Germany where safety standards in building very high, more than 70% of medical institutions are pasted over glass wallpaper. An initial material for their manufacture is special glass from which at temperature of 1200 degrees fiber glass lasts, the yarn of various kinds is formed of fiber glass and a thickness, and then from a yarn are weaved wallpaper panels.
At the heart of manufacture glass wallpaper only natural materials: quartz sand, soda, lime and dolomite that guarantees ecological cleanliness of wall coverings and absence of a nutrient medium for microorganisms or parasites. Thanks to natural minerals glass wallpaper possess high durability – they do not become covered by scratches, are not torn, it chemical influences of the concentrated disinfectants are not terrible. Glass wallpaper are possible without fears to wash.
For furnish of walls it is not necessary to use polymerizable paints, and also with care it is necessary to use a pith covering.
The best decision for a ceiling in apartment is water emulsion the paint. False ceilings can become dust stores that conducts to air deterioration. It is undesirable to use tension ceilings as first three months they can allocate phenol.
It is necessary to notice that aluminium ceilings are ecologically safe.
Kinds of pollution
Kinds of pollution: radiation, electromagnetic and chemical pollution, and also microbiological pollution. Radiation concerns ineradicable ecological pollution. From building materials materials from a natural stone, more often a granite, and also concrete, a brick if sand has got to their structure from any unsuccessful open-cast mine can be sources of raised radiation. Never “Radiation” marble and limestone.
Incorrectly connected power cables, electroconducting, distributive guards, transformer substations, electroheating devices can be a source of electromagnetic pollution. Very often power cables are connected in such a manner that “the Earth” and “The worker 0” are on one vein that leads to occurrence of an electromagnetic field (EMF) which intensity usually exceeds specifications several times.
Serious excess of electromagnetic fields can give such engineering decision as “a heat-insulated floor”. It is especially critical, if all system is executed by the uniform heating element stacked by loops on all area of a premise. “a heat-insulated floor” to a similar design leads to 10-fold excess of norm of a magnetic field indoors, and to shield it there is no sense.
Exist “heat-insulated floors” constructed on other, so-called bifilar to system. Their level of a magnetic field approximately twice more low. Many nuances are connected with infringements of technology of installation “a heat-insulated floor”. In any case in nurseries and bedrooms it is desirable to avoid a similar heating system, after all a consequence of influence EMF on a human body the most serious – from headaches and undue fatigability, finishing dysfunction of urinogenital system and oncological diseases.
The most widespread kinds of chemical pollution – phenol, formaldehyde, toluene, xylol, ammonia, a microscopic dust (silicate and cement). A source of chemical pollution can be the majority of building and finishing materials: concrete, plaster, paints, a varnish, carpeting, heaters etc.
In just constructed and repaired premise, there is a small ecological accident. Really, during this moment new paints-varnishes, furniture actively allocate harmful substances. Even if to use materials, each of which separately is not dangerous and has the sanitary-and-hygienic conclusion, all together they can create pollution which several times will exceed maximum permissible concentration. Chemical air pollution is at the bottom of considerable decrease in immunity and many diseases: a liver, kidneys, the central nervous system, respiratory organs.
In most cases the most effective way of struggle against chemical air pollutions in apartment is regular intensive airing.
Consequence of microbiological pollution is microclimate infringement, development mold mushrooms. More often their reason – in constructive infringements which lead to microclimate infringements indoors. Very often at infringement of technology of erection of walls when the heater is in thickness of a wall, on it the moisture which does not have of an exit outside starts to be condensed. As a result favorable conditions for development of dangerous microflora – CADophytes, mold mushrooms and other harmful bacteria and mold are created, many of which are extremely active and represent very serious health hazard of the person.
As the reason of microbiological pollution system of ventilation incorrectly designed or maintained with infringements also can serve in a building. For struggle against microbiological pollution it is necessary to improve climatic conditions, ventilation, first of all. If air too dry, – to put humidifiers, the visible centers of defeat and all premise as a whole to process an antiseptic tank. If the center is not visible, but it is known that pollution is present, it is necessary to establish photocatalytic filters which perfectly cope tank contamination. It is possible to replace the Photokatalitichesky filter with an ultra-violet lamp.
Microbiological pollution often is at the bottom of diseases, and presence dispute mold mushrooms in atmosphere of premises very dangerously for the persons, suffering an allergy.
So that to construct the non-polluting house, it is necessary to adhere to following rules:
- to make radiological examination of building materials (a brick, concrete and so on);
- not to use materials with unusual properties (quick-drying, superelastic and so on) as they are reached at the expense of addition of chemical additives; – after the termination of building and painting and decorating it is necessary to make complex ecological examination of a premise and to eliminate the found out pollution.
Complex ecological examination includes
- measurements of level of radiation (an alpha, beta and radiation scale),
- measurement of electromagnetic radiation of 50 hertz (electric and a magnetic field),
- the chemical analysis of air, the microbiological analysis of air.
All measurements and analyses are compared to standards of the Russian Federation and EU, possible and obvious sources of pollution, their influence on health of the person are specified and recommendations about elimination of pollution and sources are made.
1. Krivozertsev S. How to make ecological repair in apartment [http://www.riarealty.ru/ru/article/41/55018.html]
2. Green development. [http://www.rigroup.com/about/ecodevelopment/]
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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