Given article consists of two parts. In the first part leaders of the world designing, become by those are listed, in particular, thanks to application in practice of designing and building of a technique virtual, or electronic building (e-construction), and in the second part it is told about information modelling of building.
Considerable expansion of volumes of all kinds of building in Russia last years have led to avalanche growth of quantity of the design organisations. If in the USSR was their order 1500 in Russia, under the statement of statisticans, it is registered almost 37500 organisations and the individual businessmen occupied with designing. But such prompt growth of number of designers not always and not everywhere was accompanied by corresponding growth of qualification of experts and quality of production let out by them. From this point of view some aspects of a condition of design business abroad can present certain interest.
First of all we will consider a state of affairs in the USA, as one of the most technologically developed countries in this specific area. As it is known, the American statistics operates practically always with cost indexes. It is difficult to disagree with universality of a similar estimation and in building. Influential American magazine “ENR” (“building News”) for comparison purposes activity of the leading world design organisations uses size of their annual gain. Similar calculations are carried out practically in all industrially developed countries.
2007 continued to remain for design and contract organisations of the USA rather successful: the total gain of 500 largest design organisations of the country has increased on 15,8% in comparison with 2006 and has made $80,62 billion of which $60,95 billion were made by a gain from performance of the international projects, i.e. out of country limits. The leader of the list, as well as earlier, the company « is; URS” with an annual gain of $4,895 billion of which $671,4 million were made by a gain from performance of the international projects. The company closing the list “Cooper Robertson” the company « has earned $24,5 million Leader of the list; URS” from San Francisco totals in the staff of 56000 highly skilled employees working at offices of the company in the USA and abroad.
Among 150 world's largest design organisations presented by magazine “ENR” in 2007, 27 first companies have earned over $1,0 billion everyone, and the American companies have the overwhelming superiority here. So, for example, among first fifty companies 22 represent the USA, 7 – Great Britain, 4 – Canada, on 2 – Australia, Netherlands, Peoples Republic of China and France.
For comparison, 400 largest contract organisations of the USA have gained in $2007 304,36 billionthat has exceeded indicators of last year on 15,8%. The leader already for many years there is a company “Bechtel” with an annual gain of $17,696 billion of which $11,742 billion were made by a gain from performance of the international projects. A great prestige of the American experts, in a combination to decrease in rates of increase of building in the USA and dollar exchange rate falling in relation to other currencies, have led to essential growth of volume carried out design and contract works outside of the USA, especially in the Near East.
To have a fuller appreciation about a building picture in the world as a whole, represents certain interest to consider the list of 200 largest contract building organisations of the world in 2006 presented by magazine “International Construction” #6, 2007. The list is headed by two French giants: “Vinci” (a gain of $32,22 billion) and “Bouygues Construction” (a gain of $23,85 billion), first ten includes also on 2 American and Japanese companies and on one from Germany, Spain, Sweden and Peoples Republic of China. The total gain of 200 contract companies for 2006 has made $992 billion (growth 16%), or nearly so 25% from cost of all world building. Thus in the list from 200 largest companies 30 countries, including the USA – 46 companies, Japan – 36, Great Britain – 25, China – 12, the Netherlands and South Korea – on 10, Spain – 8, France – 7 and Germany – 6 are presented only. Essential interest submit data on the labour productivity of contract organisations expressed as an annual gain on 1 employee of the organisation. It is highest at the Israeli companies – $1,980 thousand, at South Korean companies – $1,292 thousand, at Japanese – $849 thousand, Australian – $565 thousand, Canadian – $540 thousand, the USA – $511 thousand etc. 10 times less it at Mexican – $99 thousand and Chinese companies – $75 thousand. Thus attracts attention average quantity of employees of contract organisations in the same countries: Israel – 621 people, South Korea – 2 801, Japan – 5 867, Australia – 10 913, Canada – 7 899, the USA – 10 365, Mexico – 15 825 and China – 123 922 people Almost that a return picture: the more quantity of employees, the more low development on one working.
Coming back to the American practice of designing and building, it is necessary to concern essential changes occurring there in business of transfer of the complete design documentation. The processes of inflation accompanied by growth of cost of a labour and building materials, have compelled for a long time participants of process “the customer – the designer – the contractor” to search for the fastest and effective ways of performance of the work, allowing not to leave frameworks of planned terms and the budget. In the late nineties, in a counterbalance to traditional practice of competitive selection of the contractor only after performance of design works (applied and nowadays approximately in 66% of cases), in the USA began to practise in a skilled order project performance under the scheme “Design – Build” i.e. performance of all project by forces of the incorporated design-building company. It is natural that for this purpose it was necessary to pass in the beginning the coordination of antimonopoly committee and to make changes to the legislation. The institute « has been created; Design – Build” in the form of association of the interested organisations which develops all necessary technical and co-ordinates legislative base of such way of realisation of building. In 2001 a total gain of the companies “Design – Build” already has made almost $55 billion, in 2005 – almost $58 billion, and in 2007 – already $83 billion In the list of 100 American companies practising the scheme published in June, 2008 “ Design – Build” all largest contract organisations, including are registered “Fluor”, “Bechtel”, “Jacobs” and others, and, if at “Fluor” the gain from performance of such contracts has made $11,23 billion, at last in the list “Ames Construction” it has reached $104 million The dissatisfaction with the general state of affairs in building compels the American companies to search and other alternative ways of performance of works, including with attraction special РМ (Program Management) or CM (Construction Management) the firms developing both supervising performance of the program and all course of building. A problem of such firms is the effective control of the schedule of performance of works and observance of the estimate of expenses. According to some experts, attraction to work of such firms or separate experts brings to the customer appreciable economy of time and means (from 5 to 20% from project cost). The great prestige of the American firms-managers, in a combination to reduction in price of cost of their services in connection with dollar devaluation have made their occurrence in the largest world building projects rather notable, in particular in Gulf States. So, for example, firm “Hill International” Has been invited for working out of the program and the control of all course of building of artificial island “Palm Jumeirah” to Dubai, including creation on it of all necessary infrastructure, including in addition 60 km of beaches.
In foreign practice of designing and building usual there are such concepts, as virtual, or electronic building (e-construction), called also an exchange of the electronic data or information modelling of building (BIM – Building Information Modeling). Process of designing and building which experts is considered the most promising both from the point of view of economy of time and resources, and from the point of view of the effective coordination of interaction of all participating in designing and building of partners is meant these concepts. Thus, naturally, improvement of quality of erected objects, especially objects difficult in architecturally-planirovochnom plan is reached also. Unlike traditional systems of computer designing AutoCAD, ArchiCAD and etc.: information modelling represents object-oriented digital model of all process of building. This model can have different degree of filling, in an ideal it should comprise information resources of all participants of the project (including manufacturers of designs and the equipment) and to be accessible during all period of its execution, beginning from the beginning of designing and finishing object introduction in operation.
BIM has two basic advantages in comparison with CAD:
1. Models and objects of management BIM is a database and the knowledge, allowing automatically to generate drawings and reports, to carry out the project analysis, to model the schedule of performance of works, operation of objects etc., giving unlimited possibilities for acceptance of the best decision taking into account all available data.
2. BIM supports the so-called distributed groups, therefore people, tools and problems can in common and effectively use this data and knowledge throughout all life cycle, from the project before realisation that excludes redundancy, repeated input and loss of the data, errors by their transfer and transformation.
It is necessary to notice that use of model BIM in practice of the American building yet did not become universal: the spent interrogations have revealed that only 16% of the design (architectural) organisations have mastered them sufficiently, and only 10% apply them in real practice of designing and building.
Introduction in practice of building of system BIM was preceded by creation in the USA, a so-called international alliance on interoperability IAI (International Alliance for Interoperability), united experts of building and developers of programs from 17 countries. The alliance was engaged in working out of standards on creation of the environment allowing users of programs possibility of unobstructed carrying over of the design data or objects from one independent program in others during all term of a life of the project that allows, in particular, to designers and builders to reduce together the concepts of building. Such compatibility, or interoperability, are rather important for the countries with close cooperated building or other industries that essentially raises economic efficiency of these branches. Similar works are conducted and in some other countries in particular, in Singapore where the verifying system of 3D-objects for the automated control of the executed projects on conformity to their requirements of regional norms of designing is created. And the executed project or its part can be one- or are repeatedly broadcast for corresponding automatic check and recheck through the Internet. Heads of department of building of Singapore are assured that introduction of an information technology for check of accepted design decisions will promote improvement of quality and reliability of erected projects, and also increase of labour productivity of experts. Interoperability of the developed programs, allowing easy carrying over of the design data from one program in another with an extensive range of functions, has promising prospects in such areas, as architectural designing, engineering designing, mechanical engineering, the electrical engineer, participation in competitions and the contract auctions, operation of constructions, maintenance of security measures etc.
The American institute of steel designs AISC is the leader in advancement in building of virtual 3D-models. Under its initiative on February, 7th, 2005 in San Antonio and on April, 17th, 2007 in New Orleans round tables with participation of experts in the given problem have been organised. Within last several years the institute has spent more than $2 million for advancement of virtual 3D-models in building practice for what it had been developed even new type of the contract documentation with the specific language and is transferred for use to the American institute of architects (AIA) for creation of typical contracts for projects of electronic building. AISC advances virtual 3D-models not only for civil-engineering designs from a steel, but also for complex objects with use, including ferro-concrete designs. So, for example, at building of the new attached case of a museum having bitten in Denver in cost $70 million and having exclusively difficult architectural form, the general contractor, by means of the virtual 3D-model developed by it has managed so to co-ordinate actions of the subcontract design and building organisations prior to the beginning of works on installation of steel and ferro-concrete designs, and also works on installation of systems of the water drain and electricians that has brought finally reduction of terms of building for 14 months and has allowed to save $400 thousand
As other example it is possible to refer to the known autobuilding company “General Motors” which has successfully finished a construction of two new enterprises in Michigan: assembly factory “LDT” to Lansing the 223 thousand m2
area and factory on manufacture of engines “Global V6” the 41 thousand m2
area in Flint. For the first time in their practice the modelling volume designing partially combined with a stage of building has been applied. All project was carried out by a command design-build (a design-building command). The project on technology 3-D design was carried out by firm “Ghafari Associates LLC” which co-operates with “General Motors” 4 years. All members of team, including manufacturers participated in discussion and project updating metalwork, electrical engineers, sanitary technicians, fire and other experts. At a stage of discussion of the modelling project the sizes and a site of all building designs and communications have been co-ordinated. The accepted technology of performance of all project has allowed to reduce considerably building terms, to eliminate almost all waste on a site and to receive essential economic benefit.
The American architects though and with some delay, actively participate in advancement of an information technology since see in this process a certain decrease in their role as the leader in realisation of the building project. They understand that the contractor starts to incur a role of the co-ordinator at realisation of projects of electronic building (e-construction). Therefore AIA not to lag behind, at the last annual meeting has accepted and has confirmed 2 standard forms of transfer of the electronic data between participants of the project who eliminate doubts of the designer in possibility of incorrect interpretation of the told data and that is not less important, eliminates possibility of unapproved use or even larceny of its intellectual property.
Before universal use of virtual 3D-models in building it is far enough, but developers of programs work intensively in this direction and start to offer all new tools of interoperability for designers and builders. It is indicative that the largest organisation-customer and the owner of the federal property – Administration of the general services of the USA (GSA) starts to stipulate receptions of the federal order for designing of objects its representation in the finished kind in the form of 3D-models.
Let's consider concept BIM
BIM – system of creation and use of the co-ordinated, consecutive information on the project, allowing to visualise projects in a context and precisely to predict operational characteristics.
At the heart of BIM lies parametrical
modelling of buildings.
The parametrical model of a building unites 3D-model and the external data. The model is correctly updated at change of its separate elements. On its basis the working documentation is formed. All elements of model are connected by dependences. At change of model the documentation is updated automatically.
Use BIM means work directly with model of a building from any kind are can be floor plans, cuts or even a field in the specification. If it is necessary to make to change model the engineer can take advantage of any kind. All kinds are synchronised among themselves and updated automatically. Uniqueness of technology consists in it.
Let's consider possibilities of one of CAD, using system BIM
(to refrain from advertising of a commercial product we name it BIMS
Target audience CAD BIMS – the design organisation incorporating some of profile departments, groups. But it at all does not say that freelancers cannot take advantage of advantages BIMS, however peak efficiency is reached in the big collective.
Work in the design organisation is characterised by that over one object in a parallel mode different departments work some and is very frequent corrections in one part of the project cause effect of an avalanche as concern all parts simultaneously and a lot of time leaves on entering of necessary corrections.
BIMS it is deprived similar lacks as all work in uniform design space. Really, any changes made by participants of the project, become accessible to corresponding users within several minutes and are automatically displayed on already grouped drawings.
At all variety in the market building CAD, BIMS it is allocated first of all with the orientation for the designer. Differs modularity, i.e. there is a base module on which in any complete set modules to taste can be added.
Let's consider the basic possibilities
BIMS – object-oriented system. For example, a door “knows” that she a door, knows the parametres, and also that it is in a wall and is required to it an aperture. At a door insert in a wall the aperture for it is created automatically. And it also automatically leaves in case of door removal.
BIMS also offers system of the user surfaces used for the task of floors, ceilings, roofs, etc. the User surfaces can have both simple, and the difficult form.
the Built in means
BIMS represents the complex program using the general three-dimensional base, uniform for model and tools. In the course of designing your model extends and will be improved. It is possible to operate easily with 3D-bodies, skeletons, projections, plans, cuts and visualisation. Thus coordination errors are practically excluded. In other words, at modification of one of kinds BIMS automatically updates base so that changes are reflected in all other kinds.
Modelling of 3D-bodies
BIMS includes builder models of 3D-bodies, capable to make boolean operations over bodies and completely integrated with system of designing of architectural elements. Its tools allow to model, change, cut and visualise conceptual plans quickly. Create difficult 3D-forms of roofs, curve, templates and apertures.
Excellent drawing tools BIMS have intellectual modes of a binding, simple tools in use of two-dimensional plotting and editing and means of converting of 2D-elements in 3D-objects. BIMS owns automatic intellectual dimensioning and the shading, automatically updated at change of the sizes and forms.
Besides, BIMS supports special modes of the viewing, portrayals allowing detail to put in dependence on current scale of the image.
Rendering and visualisation
BIMS offers difficult tools of rendering with various parametres of processing of semitones, including methods of Fonga and Guro which allow to calculate quickly visualisation of 3D-model for the analysis of the concept, forms, structures. Also the sunlight, various types of light sources and rendering methods are supported, including “a fast beam”. Animation rollers can be created in format VRML for use in multimedia presentations or the publication in the Internet.
BIMS has the built in module of animation. The new window of animation in real time allows to see animation of model and its change is constant in the course of work. For the first time animation it becomes valid a part of process of designing. Thanks to simplicity of its use the designer can animate models without necessity of specialisation and training to the technician of animation. Creation of solar studio is supported – the observer is motionless, the sun moves.
The module of specifications BIMS gives a fast and simple way of creation of the reports including the specifications of used materials and calculation of their cost. Specifications include a graphic representation of elements. The expanded specifications and explications are generated automatically and can be exported in Microsoft Excel. Possibility of numbering of premises allows to choose standards of furnish for each premise separately. With BIMS are delivered about 100 templates of specifications in accordance with GOST, created in the project by one pressing of the button. We will consider the basic features
BIMS engineering systems of knowledge:
- calculation of heat loss and light exposure it is direct under the architectural project;
- convenient automatic and manual designing of systems of ventilation, heating, water supply, the water drain and electricians;
- automatic generation of associative kinds, prospects and cuts;
- evident work on any kind;
- the help at the designing, facilitating work: an extensive database, intellectual symbols, automatic recognition of systems, etc.;
- the visual control of collisions, on all sections simultaneously, including with building designs;
- associative or any labeling;
- change and copying functions;
- representation in 2D/3D;
- intellectual graphic elements with specific properties;
- fast modification and creation of variants of the project thanks to the centralised change of properties of systems;
- easily checked calculations, including on building norms and rules;
- automatic generation of sheets and specifications in accordance with GOST;
- various variants of specifications, for example, the specification of cutting of boxes, the specification of shaped parts with a graphic representation, reports of calculations;
- optimum data exchange in family of products of concern of manufacturer BIMS;
- high-efficiency drawing interfaces dxf/dwg/dgn;
- architecturally-building interface IFC;
- interfaces of the given manufacturers on VDI 3805 for devices of heating and sanitary technicians;
- data transmission in budget systems;
- manufacturing interfaces for ventilating channels;
- specifications in a format of tables Excel.
Localised method Design2Cost from BIMS it is possible to calculate building volumes and estimation of cost
button pressing. The basic features of localised method Design2Cost on the basis of BIMS:
- interactive communication between the drawing and the schedule of works;
- possibility of calculation of not worked in details or absent positions not worked in details on the drawing;
- authentic graphic volumes for any budget qualifiers;
- the analysis and estimations for support of decision-making of the user, connected with cost;
- the tool for an early estimation of expenses (FEASIBILITY REPORT);
- transition from constructive volumes to budget by technical parts;
- updated calculation of volumes of the schedule of works at drawing changes;
- the building description (structure of works);
- the task for the tender of contractors/subcontractors;
- the catalogue of quotations and fragments of all CIS countries;
- assistants for BIMS, adjusted on fragments of qualifiers of the CIS;
- display on the drawing of a considered budget line;
- the report of transfer of volumes in the estimate with the automatic control of errors;
- ranging of quotations under the contribution to a total cost of the project;
- calculation of volumes under special formulas, including control;
- special interfaces;
- support of standard bases;
- interfaces to leading budget systems of the CIS, etc.
Some projects executed with application BIMS:
|Reconstruction of a complex of buildings
Open Society “Sibneft-Noyabrsk-petrogas”. Noyabrsk, Russia
|The reconstruction of hotel “Moscow” with application BIMS
|The complex “LUXUS HOUSE” Kazakhstan
||The company “Chemical technology” Ukraine
|The restoration of the Wordly lock.
Reconstruction of a historical image Trapeznoj.
|The building part of shop on manufacture of methanol
|The cargo terminal “Внуково”,
The architect Ivanov V. I, Moscow
|The house of ceremonies. G.Astana (the competitive offer)
1. Ivliev А.А., Lazarenko U.V., Milenin M.G. Leaders of the world of design//Building materials, the equipment, technologies of the XXI-st century. – #11, 2008 (02/20/2009) [http://www.stroinauka.ru/d26dr9557m123.html]
2. BIM – Building Information Modeling [http://www.oaopmp.ru/seminars/17-12-2008-bims.html]
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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