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Automation of designing of industrial targets
In article the problem of creation of the working documentation on technological pipelines, use of the available design documentation, programs for plotting of technological schemes and work with them, virtual models, problems of arrangement of the process equipment and installations and performance of assembly and technological and assembly isometric drawings are considered. 

We will consider technological pipelines.

In this part of article the labour-consuming and important problem – creation of the working documentation on technological pipelines (technological schemes, assembly and technological and isometric drawings, specifications etc.) will be considered.

Automation of works on designing of technological pipelines allows to raise considerably quality of the design documentation, to reduce to a minimum of an error of designing, to reduce working costs, costs to repair, reconstruction and development of capacities.

Designing of technological pipelines at reconstruction, planned repair work and expansion of capacities the same as also an object general layout, demands the special approach – similar works are closely connected not only with design department, but also with dispatching service, the departments occupied with purchase and storage of materials, and the project data should be used for management of life cycle of an industrial complex of the enterprise.

As have shown researches and experience of introduction of systems of the automated designing, for the decision of this problem are necessary program and hardware which satisfy to following conditions:
- as much as possible use available design documentation and own operating time on automation;
- allow to create virtual 3D-models of objects, automate release of drawings and specifications;
- provide convenient access to the information for designers and all “adjacent” experts;
- provide independence of used design tools;
- consider lists of the core, the recommended equipment and materials for use on under construction or reconstructed objects (documents of a planning section, department of purchases and warehousing);
- are scaled decisions (the reasonable minimum which as required and a recoupment can be expanded at first is bought).

We will consider use of the available design documentation.

Rationally and effectively to solve a problem of use of paper archives technologies of scanning with which help the information is translated from paper carriers in the electronic form help and the received information joins in new projects. The large-format scanner and program RasterDesk will be necessary for scanning and the subsequent processing of documents or Spotlight. However, about it it is already told in the review of problems of automation of work with a general layout:

Modern methods of designing provide use of system AutoCAD and customised applications for it so it is necessary to provide compatibility of the scanned and projected documents. Such compatibility support as RasterDesk (the program works directly in AutoCAD), and Spotlight (the program is capable to work with documents AutoCAD). Both RasterDesk, and Spotlight have the unique functions allowing not only to improve quality of the existing document, but also to make its analysis, and also “intellectual” processing.

After initial documents are scanned and resulted in due (or at least readable) a kind, they can use for designing new and reconstruction of existing objects.

At work with technological schemes and technological pipelines it is necessary to use software product PLANT-4D which has perfectly proved and as much as possible satisfying requirements of Russian users.

PLANT-4D Is a system of the automated designing of objects oil, petrochemical, gas, chemical, food, pulp-and-paper, a pharmaceutical industry, a fuel and energy complex, a municipal services, a special purpose, pump stations, boiler, and also designing of courts of different function, metallurgical industrial complexes and other objects with the branched out network of pipelines.

PLANT-4D – The unique software product which is well integrated with AutoCAD and RasterDesk, corresponds to the Russian state and branch standards, has the certificate of conformity of State Committee of Council of Ministers for Construction on a settlement part (the program “START”), the certificate of conformity of State Committee of Council of Ministers for Construction of the Russian Federation on registration of drawings on system of design documents for construction (the program “System design documentation for construction GraphiCS”) also it is recognised by the best product for designing of industrial pipelines in the Russian conditions.

We will consider technological schemes.

For plotting of technological schemes and work with them it is necessary to use Scheme module PLANT-4D.

It is the fine tool for performance of any assembly and technological schemes. In the module technologies are used “clever” objects and the object-oriented data. The scheme developed by the user possesses some kind of “intelligence” helping to avoid routine errors and as much as possible simplifying designing process. The user can forget about rules of plotting (first of all it concerns abilities “to draw on the computer”). Libraries of symbols are clear to the user as are executed under standards and correspond applied at designing “manually”. Users for whatever reasons it is necessary for them to add own symbols, can create the library – the system it allows.

Mentioned “intelligence” is also possibility of change of the connected objects. We will tell, you choose object (for example, a site of the technological pipeline), change one of parametres (for example, diameter) – as result all connected objects (armature, transitions etc.) and, certainly, corresponding inscriptions and designations automatically change. Recollect, how it is difficult to sign the drawing, to place diameters, biases and other designations – now all changes in an automatic mode. Not important, on what sheet there is this or that fragment of the scheme and whether the designer remembers it. Where objects have appeared, the only stipulation of their change is “related” communication with initial object. And this communication too is automatically defined at scheme drawing up.

One of the major components PLANT-4D of the Scheme – the automatic generator of tabular documents (specifications, sheets of materials, equipment lists etc.). For the task of own form of reports (for example, corresponding to the corporate standard) use Microsoft Access, entering in Microsoft Office, established practically on all computers.

PLANT-4D Schemes allows to use the design data for creation of the information system intended for technologists. Here one of software products – AutoCAD Map or Autodesk MapGuide is required to you. However, they are already recommended for work with a general layout, therefore information systems of an industrial target (enterprise) it is recommended to lead to the uniform standard for all services.

We will consider concept of virtual model.

The virtual 3D-model of the process equipment and installations, pipelines, ventilation systems is the most important result of modern designing.

Only with the advent of such model began possible to receive derivative documents, to carry out the control of crossings and infringement of limiting distances.

Virtual model PLANT-4D allows automatically or to create all derivative documents online: assembly and technological drawings, assembly isometric drawings (with full dimensioning, specifying and breakdown on assembly sites), specifications, (the report on lines) etc. Besides, you can trace, check up and correct trumpet magazine all collisions (crossing), infringement of limiting distances to transfer the data in settlement programs and to let out documents in standard formats. The last are understood as formats of databases Microsoft Access, Oracle, SQL Server, Informix, formats of documents Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Word, graphic formats AutoCAD (DWG and DXF), MicroStation (DGN).

The listed formats of databases are the world standard; it is considered that the question of ageing of a format of the information cannot arise. Graphic formats AutoCAD DWG and AutoCAD DXF – too the world standard: 90% of the design information executed on the computer are stored in these formats.

We will consider problems of arrangement of the process equipment and installation (virtual 3D-model).

For arrangement of the process equipment and installations it is necessary to take advantage of module PLANT-4D the Equipment – the parametrical library of objects allowing for very short time to create 3D-model of the equipment (pumps, capacities etc.).

The library supposes replenishment and adjustment, therefore, if there is a list of the core, the recommended equipment and materials for use on under construction or reconstructed objects (documents of a planning section, department of purchases and warehousing), you can limit its structure according to this list.

PLANT-4D The Equipment is integrated with module PLANT-4D Pipelines that provides possibility of creation of high-grade virtual models.

We will consider technological pipelines (virtual 3D-model).

For designing of technological pipelines it is necessary to use module PLANT-4D Pipelines. It completely corresponds to domestic and branch standards: there are certificated modules for calculations and registration of drawings, unique Russian library of elements of the pipeline.

PLANT-4D Pipelines are intellectual, highly effective tools and tracers of three-dimensional pipelines. Integration with module PLANT-4D allows to carry out the Equipment effectively harness of equipment and installations.

Module PLANT-4D Pipelines allows to use as much as possible available design documentation and own operating time on automation, including the scanned images and operating time in “pure” AutoCAD, and also lists of the core, the recommended equipment and materials for use on under construction or reconstructed objects (documents of a planning section, department of purchases and warehousing).

PLANT-4D is that scaled decision which we have mentioned above: at first the reasonable minimum which extends as required and a recoupment is bought.

If at the enterprise it is already used AutoCAD for Windows (any version), acquisition PLANT-4D will not demand purchase and installation of the newest version AutoCAD: PLANT-4D it is capable to work in AutoCAD R13, R14, 2000, 2000 (i), Mechanical Desktop, Architectural Desktop, Land Development Desktop:

Libraries of elements under the Russian standards are executed for PLANT-4D by high quality experts of firm “Pipeline” with the assistance of the engineering-industrial petrochemical company “ИПН”. Divisions “Pipeline” are engaged in designing of objects of petrochemistry, working out of libraries and specialised settlement programs. Libraries of elements PLANT-4D include over 70 various Russian state and branch standards and more than 170 manufacturers, among which Blagoveshchensk valves factory, Aleksinsky's factory “Тяжпромарматура” Joint-Stock Company “Армагус” Kurgan factory of pipeline armature “ИКАР” etc.

As at designing and installation of a reconstructed part of the enterprise products and details of foreign manufacture are quite often used, in libraries PLANT-4D are included not only GOST standards, OST, specifications, etc., but also standards of other countries: ANSI (the USA), DIN (Germany), BS (Great Britain), NF (France), NEN (Holland).

Result of work of module PLANT-4D Pipelines – virtual model of object with observance of all building sizes, with a totality of the attributive information (the sizes, a material, a thickness of a wall, conditional pass, pressure, the standard document, the manufacturer and so forth) and an authentic binding to district, a platform or shop.

We will consider assembly and technological drawings.

Assembly and technological drawings are carried out on the basis of virtual model in an interactive mode – the designer himself defines, as on what plane it is necessary to project. Thus correctness of registration of drawings and configuration on sheet is reached.

The generator of drawings PLANT-4D is included in delivery of module PLANT-4D Pipelines and does not demand additional financial investments.

Generation axial and the latent lines is carried out according to the Russian standards. Any other system of an average level intended for designing of technological pipelines to do it is not able.

In addition to the built in possibilities of the generator use of the special module system design documentation for construction GraphiCS developed by company Consistent Software is recommended.

By results of certified tests of system design documentation for construction GraphiCS corresponds to requirements of following standard documents: GOST 21.101-97 “System of design documents for construction. The basic requirements to the design and working documentation”; GOST 21.501-93 “System of design documents for construction. Performance rules architecturally-construction plans”; GOST 2.301-68 “Common system for design documentation. Formats”; GOST 2.302-68 “Common system for design documentatio. Scales”; GOST 2.303-68 “Common system for design documentation. Lines”; GOST 2.304-81 “Common system for design documentation. Fonts drawing”; GOST 2.305-68 “Common system for design documentation. Images – kinds, cuts, sections”; GOST 2.306-68 “Common system for design documentation. Designations of graphic materials and a rule of their drawing on drawings”.

Module of system design documentation for construction GraphiCS has the conformity certificate N РОСС RU. СП11. Н00035 State Committee of Council of Ministers for Construction of Russia N 0130173.

The most important in the offered decision is that generated in PLANT-4D drawings can be grouped (are issued and prepared for printing in AutoCAD LT 2000 with application system design documentation for construction GraphiCS. In comparison with other decisions it reduces the price of a workplace of the draftsman approximately in eight times.

The let out drawings answer the high quality standards and are stored in standard formats that guarantees possibility of their reuse after long time.

We will consider isometric drawings.

Assembly isometric drawings are carried out on the basis of virtual model in an automatic mode by module PLANT-4D the Isogene. The module analyzes the 3D-model executed in PLANT-4D Pipelines, and generates isometric drawings with observance of the state, branch, corporate or user standards. Setup the sizes, positions, drawing up of the assembly specification, breakdown on assembly sites, calculation of total weight of a site and system as a whole, numbering of connections and breakdown on sheets of the set format occur in an automatic mode. Participation of the designer is limited to start of the module and instructions of technological lines.

Isometric drawings – the main document for installation. If isometric drawings have not drawn in design department, this work is shifted on the construction superintendent. Drawing of isometric drawings (schemes and drawings) it is direct on a platform leads to errors and slows down installation.

Acquisition of module PLANT-4D the Isogene allows to reduce terms of release of the design documentation and to avoid any discrepancies in the documentation. At designing simple from the point of view of installation of objects instead of creating and making out drawings with plans and cuts, it is enough to generate the isometric drawing, to bring there additional notes for installation and to transfer to execution. And taking into account that on generated PLANT-4D the Isogene drawings is carried out automatic breakdown on assembly sites, actually installation is reduced to manufacturing in shop of the whole site, transportation to a place of installation and installation works.

We will consider specifications.

At work with PLANT-4D specifications and any tabular reports are carried out on the basis of virtual model automatically, without participation of the designer; possibility of their editing and change thus remains.

Specifications are included in delivery of module PLANT-4D Pipelines and do not demand separate financial investments. For display and the press of specifications it is used Microsoft Access, a part Microsoft Office along with Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, etc.

Integration PLANT-4D with products Microsoft gives unique possibilities of creation and editing of documents. Programs from complete set Microsoft Office are optimised taking into account the experience which has been saved up in 60 million of users.

Specially for domestic experts in PLANT-4D typical documents are added: specifications of the equipment, products and materials, the report on lines etc. PLANT-4D can add Forms of specifications (tabular documents) and the user. The system will automatically fill forms according to the set rules of grouping and sorting of the data that allows to receive the finished decision on registration and filling of accounting documents for an industrial target.

Designers, without worrying about an urgency of reports (reports/specifications are updated automatically), can concentrate on the decision of the professional problems.

We will consider application of settlement modules.

From all existing settlement programs for technologists and designers calculation of durability and rigidity of pipelines, calculation of durability of designs and hydraulic calculation of technological pipelines are important. In due course it is necessary to expand this base set, of course: to get calculations fire-explosion-safety, calculation of heat exchangers, etc.

For automation of calculations of durability and rigidity of pipelines it is necessary to use the program “START” – some kind of the industrial standard for Russia, on the qualities not conceding to the best foreign analogues: CAESAR II, Triflex, GEFKMR.

Indispensable condition of application of programs of calculation of durability at designing of objects of building in territory of Russia is presence of the certificate of conformity to domestic norms. At one of foreign systems of such certificate is not present: the durability estimation there is carried out under standards which at us do not operate. Unlike these systems, “START” has the conformity certificate (N РОСС RU.СП11. Н 00003 State Committee of Council of Ministers for Construction of the Russian Federation N 0075985) and recommendations to application of Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia.

The program “START” allows to count pipelines of power installations (it agree RD 10-249-98), thermal networks (agree RD 10-400-01), oil refining and petrochemical manufactures (agree RTM 38.001-94), main gazo – and oil pipelines (agree building norms and rules 2.05.06-85). Besides, “START” settles an invoice burn-in thickness of pipes and fittings according to requirements “Rules for the Construction and Safe Operation of technological pipelines” PB 03-108-96 and the appointed resource of projected steel technological pipelines according to supervising technical material “Instructions by calculation on durability and vibration of technological steel pipelines” RTM 38.001-94 (the Module “START– the appointed resource”).

The program allows to import the data from system of designing of industrial targets PLANT-4D and systems of the analysis of survivability of thermal stations of the Russian Open Society “UES of Russia”.

Integration PLANT-4D with the program “START” has allowed to create the unique decision for designing of industrial targets on domestic norms. PLANT-4D and “START” – unique in Russia the certificated technological ruler for designing of technological pipelines.

One more of necessary programs is “HYDROSYSTEM” intended for carrying out of hydraulic calculation at swapping of single-phase streams (liquids or gases) without heat exchange, and also a choice of diameters or definition of throughput of the branched out and not branched out pipeline. “HYDROSYSTEM” carries out calculation of properties of a pumped over product, a choice of diameters of sites of the pipeline or definition of expenses in each branch, calculation of speed of a product, losses of pressure upon a friction and in local hydraulic resistance, on lifting a product, pressure calculation in any of the specified points of the pipeline, calculation a system stock, the press of the initial data and results of calculation.

The program is recommended for use at designing and reconstruction of objects oil refining, petrochemical, gas, oil and other industries.

For calculation of durability and the analysis of designs it is necessary to get the program complex SCAD having the certificate of conformity of Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation and Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology of Russia (N РОСС RU.СП11. Н00010), and also the certificate of Gosatomnadzor of the Russian Federation (registration number of the passport of certification – PS N 124 from 11/02/2000).

System SCAD includes the developed library of final elements for modelling of the rod, lamellar, solid-state and combined designs, modules of the analysis of stability, formation of settlement combinations of efforts, checks of a tension of elements of designs under various theories of durability, definition of efforts of interaction of a fragment with other design, calculations of efforts and movings from combinations loadings, import of geometry and topology of the settlement scheme from various CAD.

Settlement programs are that means which documentary proves the decision of the designer. On the other hand, such programs to no small degree promote a finding of the optimum decision satisfying both specifications of designing, and financial requirements (reduce cost repair and construction).

Thus, software products AutoCAD will be necessary for the decision of problems of designing of technological objects, PLANT-4D, system design documentation for construction GraphiCS, “START” “HYDROSYSTEM” SCAD, and also the large-format scanner (Vidar, Contex or Oce), plotter (Mutoh, Oce, Hewlett-Packard, Canon or Encad), software RasterDesk or Spotlight.


Sources:
1. Orellana I. Automation at reconstruction and development of industrial targets in Russia//CAD and a drawing, #7, 2001 [http://www.CAD.ru/article.aspx? id=7578&iid=308]
2. PLANT-4D [http://www.plant4d.ru/plant-4d]

The author: Челябэнергопроект
Date: 07/22/2009

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