Given article is intended for heads of the organisations and departments of the information technology facing to necessity of introduction of system of electronic archive and document circulation, and also for all whom the given theme interests. In article the approach to a choice of system of document circulation is shown, is told, on what the success of introduction depends, and typical errors are noted.
At first we will consider a choice of system of electronic archive and document circulation where special attention we will give goal-setting (it too often forget). Then we will talk about the problems solved archival and workflow by systems in general – for what they are intended and for what are not intended. We will not ignore also feature TDMS (Technical Data Management System), influencing decision-making on a choice of software product for the decision workflow problems.
Further we will consider questions of cost of introduction which is defined taking into account necessity of organizational-methodical maintenance. Our problem – to show everything without what it is impossible to manage by preparation of introduction of any system of a similar class.
Then we will discuss process of introduction workflow systems: its stages and possible unforeseen situations.
Let's consider goal setting
Than we were engaged, at first it is necessary to define the purposes accurately. “the purpose – a basis of all” – truism for any professional head. Depending on the chosen purposes we receive this or that result. It is so clear that it would not be desirable to result citations at all and references. However, coming with questions on introduction the workflow systems, very many cannot answer a simple question: and what for? We not undertake to analyze the reason of it, but the facts are that.
Meanwhile the accurate formulation of the purpose and criteria of its achievement allows to reach the best result. It is very important to define the purposes which the potential client understands, but cannot formulate – after all for it all so simply and it is ordinary: However it is hard: extraneous people look at the world from other point and do not possess completeness of knowledge about states of affairs in the concrete organisation. What to do?
In company CSoft usually suggest to play in simple game which is called “for what”. We will give an example. We will admit, the person speaks:
– The document circulation system is necessary to me.
– For what?
– I should store drawings and text documents.
– For what?
– Possibility of fast search of the documents developed earlier is necessary to me.
– For what?
– It is required to adjust a reuse of documents.
– For what?
Here it is very important, what will be the answer. One business when the person will tell: “faster to develop following documents” – and absolutely another, if: “to standardise the methods of work, to create templates of documents, typical design decisions, and finally – to develop following documents 10 times faster”. Quite probably that answers will be others – we will tell, it is required to organise storage of documents for preservation of intellectual property of the enterprise, etc. Almost always it is necessary both that, and another, and the third, but in different proportions. Despite external similarity, it is essentially different purposes which demand absolutely different organizational approaches and ways of application of means (in our case – archival system), coinciding only partly and only in small elements and united in a single whole it is absolute differently.
Practice shows that as soon as the chain of the purposes is concretised to the problems lying in a plane of business problems, and written down on a paper, there is a change and the addition of the purposes any of them admit insignificant, others leave on the foreground. And it is natural, as one more base principle of management is based on features materialization ideas: the problem written or drawn on a paper, loses the mysteriousness and incomprehensibility, there is at once a set of approaches to its decision.
The third elementary principle which underlies acceptance of any decisions, – priority. It is necessary to understand, what not all purposes can be reached simultaneously. Some of them are incompatible, others are interconnected in such a manner that achievement depends on achievement of one purpose another. And – in most cases to reach the most important thing two independent purposes simultaneously it is 10 times more difficult, than by turns.
From the listed principles the simple guide to action follows. It is necessary:
- to formulate the purposes in writing (it is possible to draw);
- to eliminate contradictions with a view of (there are quite mature engineering methods of resolution of conflicts);
- to build the dependent purposes in cause and effect sequence;
- to build the independent purposes in preference order.
After streamlining of the purposes there will be a possibility to approach to drawing up of the strategic plan, choosing methods and means of its realisation.
This procedure is applicable to any sphere of activity.
Let's consider errors of goal-setting
Despite simplicity of base principles, errors of goal-setting remain both the most frequent, and the most destructive. We will not explain in detail, than such errors threaten, everyone can result set of effective examples from own practice. We will simply list the cores.
Statement of false targets threatens with loss of months and years on achievement of useless result.
Statement of the purposes of inappropriate level. It is necessary to dwell upon this error. The matter is that, despite seeming simplicity, finally prolonged game in “for what” always leads to the one and only question: “In what meaning of the life?” the problem of the head or an analyst which works over formalisation of the purposes – to stop in time an ascension on a cause and effect chain. Usually root purposes for a choice of means (such as document circulation system) concern problems and business possibilities, is more exact – requirements for realisation of possibilities and the decision of problems. Warps are possible in both parties. On the one hand, it is possible to choose document circulation system, insufficiently well representing that particularly it will bring to the company or department, but formulating requirements to concrete technical details, with another – the document circulation system can be chosen the head from the personal preferences, not till the end of connected with the company purposes.
The answer to a question partly consists in it, whether there are at system concrete technical details: “all depends on for what they to you are required...”. The matter is that very often the question is put incorrectly (for example: “you have ceased to drink cognac in the mornings?”) and on it it is impossible to give the accurate irrefragable answer which is not containing “if” and “but”. In half of cases the made demands quite justified, however in other half of cases it appears what to speak about technical details still early as the purposes of higher level are not formalized. Besides, it is necessary to understand that the same conceptual requirement can be realised in tens equivalent ways the choice among which depends on many factors, including from possibilities and restrictions of accessible means.
Experience shows that first two errors meet much less often, than the third – incorrect definition of a priority of the purposes. As often purposes of level of one project are put above strategic interests of the company! As often purposes of one potential user are put above the purposes of all division! But more often all purposes receive an identical priority – the first.
“I Want all and at once!” – users speak, but they do not represent that to implementers much easier at once to give all completeness of technical possibilities of system, than to users to master and apply it. It unscrpulous sellers which quite in a condition to give all and at once sometimes use. Simply enough to prove that “all and at once” it is realised and start-up established, and to shift risks of introduction on unfortunate users who like would receive that wanted, but and have not understood, in what a dirty trick. To avoid such situation, it is necessary to know about sequence of achievement of the purposes only. Besides, it is frequent after achievement of the first purposes there are changes in representation of users about a direction of movement and priorityor simply the objective situation varies. The stage-by-stage approach to achievement of the purposes at introduction workflow systems allows to consider that fact that in the world there is nothing constant, and also it is fair to divide responsibility for result between the customer and the supplier.
Let's consider, how to choose system and when to address to advisers
Having the formalized and structured system of the purposes, it is possible to address to suppliers workflow decisions with quite concrete questions. After acquaintance with the conceptual document of the customer they will tell, how their system is capable to solve tasks in view. Besides, it is useful to address to advisers for carrying out of the comparative analysis of several systems with accurate criteria of an estimation in the form of the purposes of the customer and their priorities. The same work can be done and it is independent. The most important thing that the formalized purposes help to define possibilities of system of electronic archive and document circulation for performance of specific targets. Once again we will notice that in that case questions on concrete technical possibilities of system, first, are quite lawful, and secondly – are always formulated correctly and assume reception exact and irrefragable answers.
Sometimes at attempt to write out and order the purposes connected with document circulation, there are great difficulties of objective character. Unlike systems for creation of documents, model of a product or object of building, workflow systems always mention organizational level. As soon as with system start to work some persons, transferring each other results of the work, there is a necessity for the regulations capable, first, to establish the requirement to results of each operation, and secondly, to organise work in one system of automation. To understand an artful design of own requirements and restrictions, to develop the complete set of organizational regulations with the plan of their introduction and to choose means (concrete systems of automation), it is possible to involve a foreign analyst.
It is necessary in various situations, for example, in the absence of own analysts having experience of similar work. Probably, such experts also are, but for various reasons they do not have time to deal with a choice and introduction problem workflow system. If consultation not only in the field of business, but also in the field of means (various systems of automation) is required, it is possible to invite highly specialised advisers. At last, often it is required a fresh sight at a current situation. In particular, group of companies CSoft, following the base principle “We deliver not the software, and the decision of concrete problems of the client” renders consulting services in the field of the organisation of construction work and introduction of means for their realisation.
Let's consider, for what document circulation
in general and TDMS in particular is necessary. We will result classification of the purposes
Let's divide the possible purposes on the period of their action and influence scale. The longest purposes really are strategic for the organisation and there are for years and decades (while there are organisations), and smaller purposes – months and years (the standard accounting periods or separate projects so much last). These are the purposes of department, the project (a design command) or the group allocated to other sign. The purposes of scale of several days or weeks are boundary – on the one hand, they already are in the project or department, and with another – sometimes still unite some persons. Often enough such purposes are connected with a unique design problem: working out of the complete set of documents or models of a product or object of building. And, at last, the purposes of the user of system of the automation, measured by minutes and hours, concern already directly certain users, means and results received with their help.
Let's consider the purposes of level of the organisation
So, that can be expected from modern systems of electronic archive and document circulation from the point of view of various levels of the purpose? We will begin with the organisation. Undoubtedly, basic function of any archive (both paper, and electronic) is a preservation of all significant results received during realisation of projects. For the design organisation almost all results are packages of documents. During game in “for what” this simple purpose, despite its evidence, is mentioned no means always. It is impossible to overestimate importance of safety of operating time for many long years forward, however this problem often enough fades before today's problems of the project.
every year the organisation has result of the activity which is taken away by the customer, and profit which is taken away by owners. Something will be enclosed in purchase of tool means, in repair and expansion of office, etc., but from the point of view of designing the only thing that remains in the organisation is an experience of its employees, allowing to execute following projects faster and more qualitatively. However people are not eternal on the posts: one leave on increase, others – on the deserved rest. There are also less pleasant events... As a result the only thing that remains to the organisation after many years of its activity are the operating time saved up in archive and knowledge of the best ways of designing. The organisation which is not protecting the archives, closes to itself a way to development: standardization and unifications, to perfection of methods of designing, accumulation of knowledge of failures and reliability of those or other decisions (and it is the most expensive technical knowledge). Agree, nobody would like to spend all life behind a school school desk, each time remaining for the second year, and not so it is important – in the first class or in final.
In long-term prospect preservation of operating time and return to them for development of methods of work – a key to the maximum increase of an overall performance. Such simple approach expressed in the short instruction:
- fix a line of action,
- operate according to plan, keeping the information,
- analyse the performed work,
- make improving changes to the plan,
Has laid down in a basis of the most powerful and progressive approach to the management, received in the western management name TQM (Total Quality Management), and in Russian – quality management. This philosophy of management has found reflexion in group of standards ISO 9000 which introduce today many companies.
It is important to note and one more moment carrying the name “intellectual property”. For years of work cost of archive of the organisation can exceed cost of all its other actives. Certainly, here there is a set “if” and “but” nevertheless, many agree – for it it is necessary to struggle.
Within the limits of archival storage of electronic documents one more important problem standing at any level – a problem of information safety dares. Naturally, any system of electronic archive contains means of reserve copying of the information, allowing to be saved from loss of the data because of breakage of the equipment as a result of the most different reasons – from casual damage to a fire and flooding.
In order to avoid casual damage given users of system provide differentiation of access rights which accurately regulate who and when can change documents, look through them, etc.
For struggle against plunder of documents there are means of audit of actions of users when all actions with documents register in magazine. The fact of the logging, known to users, will already warn them against rash acts. Except these obvious means which are available practically in any workflow to system, in TDMS are provided also special functions of restriction of access, such as the protected viewing of documents (without a copy unloading on a local disk) and an interdiction for disclosing of the fact of existence of the document in archive.
Let's consider the purposes of level of the project
What the system of electronic archive and document circulation on the scale of the project or the accounting period gives? From the point of view of the project, the archive stores the original of the document and watches versions of documents. Besides, an archive problem – the account of subscribers and the organisation of dispatches of notices on changes in documents. That will be, if these functions are not carried out, all know. Nobody wishes to carry out workings out on the basis of irrelevant documents as almost for certain it will lead to necessity to return and something to alter. And discrepancy of versions of initial documents at some executors working over one project, the irreparable damage can cause. From the point of view of business, functions of the control of versions and the account of subscribers save time and forces, and the most important thing – save from the annoying unexpectedness involving failure of treaty obligations or still the worst result.
Standard functions of electronic archive are clear. What can receive the project from workflow systems? If it is a question of document circulation as a whole the answer will be: “All depends from...”. If to tell about TDMS, the basic possibilities:
- the centralised, structured and protected storage of the electronic documentation and all information connected with it, including the data about process of its working out and use;
- distribution of access rights between users of system for the purpose of maintenance collective (including parallel) works with the information;
- fast search of documents and objects in attributes;
- fast viewing of files of drawings with use of the built in module of visualisation;
- creation of samples – sets of the objects/documents automatically formed on set conditions;
- integration of used program applications by their connection it is direct to system by means of the program interfaces realised through API TDMS;
- import and export of the information with the help both built in, and additional mechanisms of data exchange;
- reception of reports (specifications, sheets) any level of complexity; reception of the information on process of work with the data and documents: conducting history of changes of objects and history of work of users with objects (projects, products, documents);
- loan of parts of projects (products);
- information interchange and the documentation on internal protected E-mail.
That is, at least, support of management by the project is added: creation and plan storage, delivery of tasks, the execution control, integration with systems of network planning in which it is possible to make duration calculations, optimisation of the network schedule, balancing of resources and many other things. Why TDMS? The answer to this question consists in features of architecture of system. TDMS allows to store not only documents, but also any objects which are subject to the account together with any attribute structure: problems, executors, correspondence, structure of object of building etc. The logic here is simple: the document always appears as a result of performance of a problem of the concrete user. The document is always connected with concrete knot in structure of object of building or a product. The document has versions. Documents communicate with each other (for example, the drawing with the permission to change). In TDMS all necessary considered objects, their attributes and communications between them can be placed. As a result in system there is an information for tracing of a condition of any considered objects and for the expanded search of the document by navigation on communications. Reception of all necessary reports becomes only a trick. What does support of management by the project give? Undoubtedly, big controllability process, the best coordination between problems and executors, so – productivity increase. Besides, the more information on a current condition of works is in the centralised system, the to renew work in case of replacement of one executor with another easier or if necessary to increase number of executors during project performance. Shortly it is called “increase of reliability of process of designing”.
Let's consider the purposes of level of a design problem
Let's pass to the purposes in the project. The daily problem which is carried out in any project, working out of the document or the complete set of documents is. For birth of the confirmed document not enough one developer, efforts matching and confirming experts should make. Classical document circulation here again enters game. The document developed by one expert, should visit when due hereunder on workplaces of several other experts, and if necessary – to return with remarks to the developer for correction and repeated sending on a route. With such problems any system of electronic document circulation easily consults is its main destination. That such automation gives, too it is clear: it is not necessary to bear a paper roll matching to the expert, it is not necessary to wait, if has not found it on a place, process of passage of the document is accelerated, raises productivity of designing.
There is one more problem, characteristic for today. The matter is that, despite acceptance of the law on a digital signature, still some time the paper copy with original signatures and the seals will be considered as the document original. Thus practically always the document is produced in electronic form and only is then printed. And to make necessary changes to the paper document (on the basis of the permission about change or remarks matching the expert) is the most easier, having addressed to its electronic original. Find the electronic original of the paper document again the system of electronic archive and document circulation provided that the document was developed with its use can to help. Except simplification of a reuse of the electronic original document, at chain automation “working out – the coordination – the statement” also necessity of listing of the document to the statement disappears. The document can be unpacked and signed after the coordination and the statement in electronic form that besides saves time and raises productivity. For simplification of search of the paper original stored in archive, the system of electronic archive provides storage of an index of paper archive, including instructions on premises, numbers of cases and shelves. This function is a little less significant from the point of view of the designer, but is irreplaceable for workers of archival service.
A little independently there are the problems rather new to the world archival and workflow of systems is a support of group working out of models of a product or object. The matter is that the majority of systems for solid-state or spatial modelling store object model in set of the files connected among themselves definitely. At “front use” such system of modelling based on files, constantly there are collisions. That someone has opened model entirely and has blocked possibilities of change of its parts for other users two persons have simultaneously edited the same file, and at preservation someone's changes will inevitably be gone: Today some large systems of modelling have own subsystems for the organisation of the group work, the models focused on working out within one project. Such systems watch distribution of the rights to editing of files and for synchronisation of the changes brought by different users.
TDMS it was created taking into account such problems. Thanks to possibility to store any objects and communications the system does not test difficulties with preservation of spatial multifile model of object and communications between files, restoration of model for editing and viewing in “native” to modelling system. As soon as the model gets to database TDMS, to it all its possibilities, including differentiation of access rights, versioning, communication of versions of model with the flat documents received on its basis, and many other things become applicable.
Let's consider the purposes of users
And, at last, the last one after another, but not on value, we will consider the purposes of separate workers within the working day. The most important thing that the separate designer from system of electronic archive and document circulation receives is a qualitative supply by the information necessary for work. Each person, coming for work, should answer for itself three simple questions:
- what today to do,
- with what help of documents,
- how to do.
The system in which functions of delivery of tasks are automated can answer all these questions, working out of documents in electronic form is supported and as the electronic archive is accessible to search of the is standard-help and methodical documentation, and for loan of design decisions from other projects. Value of automation in this question cannot be overestimated. Very few people in a condition to bring from paper archive pair of hundreds documents easy to choose for itself ten the most useful. With electronic archive in it there is nothing impossible. As consequence, sooner or later quality of designing will start to raise, the percent of loan of design decisions will increase that will lead to additional increase in productivity.
Separately at this level of the purposes there are questions of integration of appendices. How often we should enter the same information into some documents, such as a document card in archival system, a drawing stamp, a line of the plan-schedule of works? What probability of an error? How much it irritates users? How it is frequent for performance of one operation it is required to carry out typical sequence of identical pressing buttons? If something to pass, operation will not be executed. All these questions arise because we cannot write one big program for all occasions – for creation and editing of documents, for archival storage and the organisation of movement of documents, for support of design management, for conducting the accounting reporting and many other things. Undoubtedly, at such approach independent development any separate features would become impossible. Therefore we apply set of appendices which under the used information partially are crossed. For elimination of routine operations these appendices can be integrated among themselves and exchange the data directly, excepting necessity of repeated manual input, or cause functions each other, passing superfluous pressing of the buttons, which combination so it is easy to forget. That integration was possible, appendices should have the open interface for a call of functions or data exchange. These requirements are answered with the overwhelming majority of modern appendices, and TDMS here not an exception. Integration reduces quantity of errors and pressure of users, switching their attention from “struggle against car” on the direct working duties that besides conducts to productivity increase.
Let's consider standard mission
We have shortly listed typical appointments of systems of electronic archive and document circulation. Naturally, for detailed consideration of this theme it should to write some books. Nevertheless now we are ready to answer one more of mentioned in the beginning of article of questions. So why there is no standard variant of system of document circulation?
It would seem, all is clear: we will begin with strategic advantages as they bring the greatest advantage, then we will gradually pass to smaller problems and, at last, we will finish pleasant trifles. But far from it. First, almost anybody from coming to us does not formulate the purpose of strategic level independently, the greatest – well designates the purposes of level of the project. Why – a subject of separate conversation. We consider that strategic targets are too great, that it was simple to one person to understand and comprehend them. Here the loaded word of the first persons of the organisation and their strategic vision of a situation is absolutely necessary. Secondly, let's ask a question: whether always the big purposes have more priority, than small? For example, whether there is a sense to think of preservation of intellectual property of the organisation if there is a threat of failure of the treaty obligations, closing road to the future?
Any organisation exists in the unique conditions with set of possibilities, problems, threats and restrictions which can be big or small, close or kept away, momentary or long-term. Concerning introduction of system of electronic document circulation each organisation has own unique set of the purposes with their priorities and restrictions. As, as we have already agreed, the purposes are primary, it becomes clear that the decision standard cannot be. More precisely, decisions which can be declared as standard, satisfy for a long time already nobody completely, and we again appear before necessity to work with a unique combination of the purposes of the customer. Even if the standard decision completely approaches the organisation is still it is necessary to prove, for what all the same it is necessary to execute a simple complex of exercises on goal-setting, described in the first part of article. Temptation to pass this stage, considering the price of possible errors, can cost much.
The experience of experts CSoft testifying to absence of standard variants (excepting the most simple), has allowed to make TDMS the system which is as much as possible adjusted under any problems of archival storage and electronic document circulation. As already it was told earlier, in TDMS any considered objects, their attribute structure and communications with other objects can be stored. The concrete objective and attribute structure, and also possible communications are set at adjustment of system with use of the built in designer of adjustment. For integration with other appendices TDMS has the open interface through which it is possible to involve any functions and to get access to the data which is in system. Probably to adjust any movement of the data and documents between concrete executors, fulfilling the regulations accepted in the organisation. Such ideology of system allows to solve problems stage by stage, following priorities of the current purposes facing to electronic archive and document circulation. As soon as certain features not only start-up established, but also it is mastered and we apply users, it is possible to pass to the following problem, if necessary tuning TDMS. Naturally, any medal has two parties. And a payment for flexibility is that without preliminary adjustment TDMS will not solve any problems. The situation is softened with presence in system of functions which are required first of all more often that allows to benefit after the minimum adjustment from the simple archival decision.
Thus, that is necessary for introduction
So, the purposes are defined, necessary organizational measures for their achievement are as a first approximation planned, means are chosen. We will admit, the system of electronic archive and document circulation became one of such means. What further? Has It seems that come to make time the project plan of introduction containing an accurate image of result, the list of works for its achievement and an estimation of demanded resources, such as time, money and people. Then we can approach to the answer to the next question put in the beginning of article: how many there is an introduction of system of document circulation?
Introduction of the big system for group work reminds an iceberg. From afar it is possible to see only a top, the basic weight is under water and is not visible an unaided sight. Despite it, in introduction of such system there is nothing mystical. As well as the small size of a top of the present iceberg will mislead nobody.
Let's begin with simple – with the licence. It, perhaps, the only thing that it is possible to estimate quickly, having asked only a question on quantity of users. Usually the price-list is opened also the price of licences of the certain software can be named immediately.
Hardly has more difficult put is with works on introduction. First, it is necessary to be defined with their volume, secondly, to understand, who will particularly perform these works: experts of the customer or the supplier of system. To estimate amount of works, it is necessary to have the technical project on system or at least the system concept. The problem that it is impossible to write the big and detailed technical project for couple of days, is in itself big work which also will demand serious expenditures of labour, so also payments.
To reduce risk the rule which already was discussed earlier helps: the purposes should be reached stage by stage. Having the formalized purposes and the system concept, it is possible to plan rather precisely the first stage on which the priority purpose will be reached. By the time of end of the first stage and to users, and implementers enough details simplifying planning of a following stage are already known. Thus, it is possible to avoid the losses connected with errors of planning of great volumes of work in the conditions of huge uncertainty. Besides, the system will start to benefit after the first stages of introduction. And a question “how many there is an introduction?” smoothly turns in “how many there is a first stage?” and “how many all will be stages?” and it already questions on which it is possible to give much more exact answer.
What have we not considered? Let's look: for work of workflow systems the server, a local network and the trained manager is required still at least. It is necessary to allocate (or to buy) a server to be convinced available communications on a network between it and client places to train the manager in work with concrete system (in our case – TDMS), and sometimes before it also to find the person on a post of the manager.
Everything seems, whether not so? No, not so! What have forgotten? There was a most important thing – work which will be done by employees of the customer at system introduction.
This work will begin with formalisation is more whole that will demand steadfast attention of the first persons of the company and chiefs of divisions, and this time. Time of the qualified experts which can be counted in quite concrete image in money.
At planning of stages for technical project drawing up heads and key employees of divisions will be involved again is again time and forces of employees of the customer.
For introduction of system of electronic archive and document circulation it is required to create and introduce the new organizational regulations, which writing even if they will be developed by analysts of the supplier of system, again will demand time of heads. At introduction of regulations employees will spend additional efforts for their development.
And, at last, it is necessary to consider time and the forces spent by a command of the pilot project, consisting of employees of the customer, in system pre-production operation.
How many it is all costs, the customer can tell only. It is very important, that all work which experts of the customer should execute, has been really executed. The attention to the introduction project from outside the top management for this purpose is required.
After all is considered, counted and planned, it is possible to start introduction process. More low we will talk about a technique used at introduction as TDMS, and many other systems.
Let's consider, as there is an introduction
And this process begins with inspection for formalisation of requirements to system. The problem of such inspection – to collect the information necessary for adjustment TDMS. Result will be the technical project (ТЗ) on a stage (or stages) which will give accurate representation to the customer that it will receive, and to implementers – that they will realise. As soon as such arrangement is reached (ТЗ is confirmed), it is possible to start directly stages of realisation which can be a little.
The standard stage of realisation consists from:
- options of certain functions of system (it agree ТЗ);
- start-up and adjustments;
- training of users;
- Pre-production operation of new functions by specially generated command of the pilot project;
- Entering of updatings into adjustment following the results of pre-production operation;
- Revision of the concept of system and strategy of its development.
After performance of one full stage of realisation it is possible to start the following.
Somewhere in between formalisation of requirements and realisation stages (or simultaneously with them) have got lost on delivery of the software, the equipment, preparation of a network and training of managers – them it is impossible to pass works. They are planned so that not to detain problems depending on them.
Let's look that can go not so.
Let's begin with the smallest risks – technical. Happens that any technical possibility does not manage to be realised. At competent implementers the such happens seldom enough and testifies that has not been given the technical project of a proper attention. Quite another matter, if insufficiently qualified experts undertake system introduction. Even if the customer has excellent programmers, we recommend to execute at least one stage with attraction of experts CSoft, and first of all – analysts whom systems taking into account possibilities will set the task so that not to constrain developers at decision creation.
Despite the fact that what technical risks exist, their influence a little. Risks organizational are much more serious. As already it was marked above, absence of attention and support of heads of enough high level almost always dooms the introduction project to failure. Necessarily it is necessary to include the head in structure of a design command, capable to organise interaction of all divisions mentioned by introduction. Then the problems connected with working out and introduction of corresponding organizational regulations, will dare in the worker (instead of in is emergency-emergency) an order.
How organizational risks were great during the project, they will not be compared to risk of an unsuccessful choice of the purpose. Though this question already rose, we will repeat that the greatest risk traps at the very beginning of the introduction project workflow systems, therefore the formulation of the purposes should give a proper attention, and the professional analyst should carry out predesign inspection and problem formalisation whenever possible.
Anyhow, even if something will go not so, always it is possible to correct a situation. It to make at observance of three conditions much easier:
- to introduction the sufficient attention from outside managements is paid;
- the management realises difficult structure of the price of introduction, especially in that its part which concerns the work done by the customer;
- introduction is broken into small enough stages so that from the schedule of one stage it was possible to compensate a failure or an exit on the following.
Thus, to achieve success at introduction and to avoid superfluous expenses not too difficult. It is necessary to consider only simple principles and to put enough efforts.
When to consider introduction finished or, in other words, how many it is required introduction stages? Someone has told: “Introduction of the big system proceeds to her death” – hinting that the situation will constantly vary – there will be new external conditions, new internal comprehension of the purposes and a development direction will come. Our experience shows: for introduction of the system covering the majority of problems (including input of all features in steady commercial operation) the design organisation, it is required from three to ten stages that in calendar calculation will make some years. And still in each specific case again all depends from...
For an example, steps of development of hypothetical system of document circulation can be such: simple electronic archive of documents, system for collective working out of documents in electronic form, system with support of management by projects, system with the process management, supporting standard ISO9000. These are four stages. Here it is necessary to add problems of integration with adjacent systems – a control system of projects and system for collective modelling of objects. Besides, there can be problems on transfer of available paper archive in archive of the scanned images, problems of migration of documents and the data from out-of-date systems and many other things.
Thus, we is short have considered a choice, preparation of introduction and actually introduction of system of document circulation and electronic archive