Whether your organisation of the requirement of standards on registration of the design documentation observes? On this question many employees, without reflecting, will answer that, certainly, observes. Actually here all is far not so simply.
To begin with it is necessary to understand, for what standards are necessary. The main task of standards consists in uniformity and interaction maintenance that the design documentation could read both customers and executors, besides, today it allows to automate a part of works with the design documentation prepared by the different organisations. That is that the documentation has been executed uniformly. That it was clear to other people, and standards on registration the design-budget documentation are developed. Actually here the expediency principle is put.
Thus, it turns out that requirements of standards are secondary, and primary are an expediency, readability and uniformity.
If to consider work of the enterprises practically on each of them in design practice takes place both superfluous application of standards, and their absence.
Let's consider superfluous application of standards
The requirements of majority GOST standards regulating registration the design-budget documentation, were developed when drawings were mainly carried out on a Whatman paper and about any their performance in systems CAD at modern level there was no also a speech. Therefore GOST well solved problems on maintenance of uniformity and expediency (practicality) within manual registration of the documentation:
- for readability and uniformity of all design-budget documentation one font has been regulated;
- the structure of tables was made so that it was possible to enter the information easily manually;
- frameworks were convenient means for orientation where it is necessary to stop to write the text.
Application CAD in a root has changed technics of performance of drawings. If before GOST on documentation registration met primary requirements: to expediency and uniformity (practicality), that, in due time without having corrected the requirement, it, on the contrary, became the opponent of the given positions and accordingly a brake to development.
Now we will consider the listed criteria in more details. We will consider fonts
. That the font completely satisfied GOST 2.304-81, some design organisations, and also developers of programs enter a new font which is absent in system AutoCAD. Presence of a similar font which does not enter into standard delivery AutoCAD, creates many problems: on all computers where the given drawings (at the customer, the subcontractor will open, etc.), additional fonts should be established.
Frequently the problem is underestimated – the following approach takes place: “It not a problem – it is necessary to copy only fonts, and business to the end”.
Such approach is fraught with following consequences:
- there is no guarantee that there will be no two fonts, named equally, but differing on any parametres;
- the font because of what the extra time is spent for reason finding-out, why the text « is no means always transferred; has parted” on correspondence, transfer and font installation;
- in the organisation the ten programs if each of them uses the font there will be involved tens fonts is applied, at least;
- it is not necessary to forget also that standard (delivered with system) fonts AutoCAD with the big share of probability will be present at the subsequent versions software.
- the drawing will be looked through, most likely, on several computers of the customer, therefore it is required to copy a font on each computer, and this extra time;
- when the customer transfers the drawing to other persons, for example the travellers, he can already not know, which fonts need to be copied (if the font automatically does not take root a drawing file);
- the customer can simply not want to plant “the disorder” in fonts.
Working out of new fonts usually occurs that the tracing of some letters in the fonts delivered with system, differs from resulted in GOST 2.304-81.
Above it has already been noticed that any requirements of GOST standards are secondary and serve for satisfaction of primary requirements: readability, uniformity and expediency. At present in systems Windows and AutoCAD the fonts, which steels by the standard de facto are put. They are delivered together with the appendix and guarantee correct perusal of the documentation on any computer where it is established given software. Such fonts are system fonts Times New Roman, Arial, etc., fonts AutoCAD – txt, romans, etc. to Primary requirements the given fonts perfectly satisfy: guarantee uniformity, readability a text material in electronic drawings and expediency of use: it is not necessary to copy any fonts, and the drawing executed with use of standard fonts, it will unequivocally be read on other computer.
In addition created fonts (system of design documents for construction, common system for design documentation, etc.), completely corresponding to GOST, do not meet primary requirements.
As a result there is such situation: blindly following requirements GOST (by working out or use of fonts), we come to that primary requirements are broken: expediency and uniformity for the sake of what GOST also was developed.
It is necessary to notice that in some organisations instead of vector fonts AutoCAD at performance of the graphic documentation planimetric fonts – standard fonts Windows are used. The substantiation of a choice of such font is resulted not so convincing: so looks more beautifully, and letters turn out thicker. The similar approach in a root is erroneous: application of planimetric fonts strongly slows down work in the program – even at insignificant on a saturation the drawing the computer will long process the information, after all it needs to count an outline of each letter and to fill in corresponding areas. And what if it is necessary to work on the difficult drawing? The thickness of letters can be operated, using vector fonts (only it should to be able use).
Let's consider the problems arising at formation of custom-made specifications
The fixed height of a line.
In GOST 21.110-95 the form of the custom-made specification is resulted and it is underlined that the height of a line should be “8 min”. Though directly in the text it is not told anywhere that lines should have identical height, the table is ruled through an identical interval. Therefore in overwhelming majority of the organisations the following record is accepted: if the information does not find room within one line, it is transferred to the following cell (drawing see).
When the document is filled in the manual way, it is quite logical. But it is necessary to start to use by documentation working out software, business takes absolutely other turn:
- All software (Word, Excel, AutoCAD, etc.) at work with tables if the information does not find room for one line, transfers a portion of the information for other line, but within one cell! And there is it automatically!
- If the portion of the information is separated not in the empty line, and underlining, it is much more convenient for reading. The eye distinguishes the information concerning one element if it is separated from another by line is better and finds room within one line. Besides, in this case the table takes less places.
By documentation working out manually the variant of a writing of the text in one cell (drawing see) was not technological, but at present this method is much more expedient.
What does the designer do? He writes down the information in a cell, tracing, whether it finds room within one line. If it does not find room, passes in other cell and continues to describe object. If now it is necessary to modify record in case of increase in the size the designer is compelled to add an empty line and manually to carry out text carrying over. Even worse if working out of additional programs for automation of the given process is made.
As you can see, the additional volume of handwork (if additional programs are not developed) or additional volume of unnecessary work (if working out specialised software, placing the information is carried out according to GOST standards) though base software (Word, Excel, AutoCAD) for a long time already is capable to format the information within one cell turns out. Why and not to arrive?!
The given aspect concerns not only designers, but also developers of the programs forming various reports.
Frameworks and stamps in the test documentation.
If earlier the framework was expedient and served mainly for the task of borders of the text now by working out of the documentation by word-processor means (in 90% of cases it Microsoft Word) text borders are set without framework application. The framework serves only as an additional decorative element, it does not limit text area! But its application leads to restriction of use of possibilities of the program, demands additional unjustified expenses both on document formation, and on elimination of arising incorrectnesses (for example, often there is a situation that the framework has moved down or it is necessary to level table border according to a framework, etc.).
There is a natural question: and what for the framework is necessary? Perhaps, it is expedient to leave it only on the first sheet? The information on numbers of sheets and drawing mark is necessary, but it can be registered in headlines (let not in a habitual kind, but it will be present). As to a change stamp documents in electronic form are usually replaced entirely and necessity for such information disappears. Yes, it is an unusual way, but, many problems disappear!
Because of imaginary necessity of existence of a framework and stamps (them it would be possible to replace with the information in a headline) it is seldom used software Microsoft Excel though it, instead of a word-processor followed apply to formation of specifications and other tabular reports.
Why for formation of specifications not to use DBMS, for example Access? The matter is that if the specification is generated by means Access to correct it according to designing conditions (the stamp has changed, it is necessary to add a missing word to hammer the additional information, etc.) it is almost impossible. More precisely, it is possible, but in that case it is necessary to contain programmers who constantly would help designers.
If to be more exact, in Excel there are next ways of formation of frameworks:
- cells are grouped and led round in such a manner that borders of cells and will make a stamp and a drawing framework;
- in the special program (under Excel) the demanded kind of the specification is formed of one sheet (the information is in a tabular kind) and other sheet (contains a framework with a stamp).
However the first variant does not maintain any criticism: at addition of a line the information begins “to float” and the second demands working out (presence) of the additional program though the sense in it is absent.
It is possible to result more many similar problems, however their consideration is beyond given article.
At registration of the design documentation designers usually are guided by service normative control which works by a principle “so we always did” or “according GOST standards”. But if to follow the given logic as we lived without phones, and we will continue to live without them. But after all the situation varies, design tools are improved, therefore service problems of normative control should include change of standards of the enterprise so that to carry out more effective work.
That the document completely corresponded GOST standards, it is necessary to spend some time. Only here the free time at designers does not happen. And what sense will be from such work? Almost any! That is the designer performs this work only because “so it is necessary”. And the enterprise pays performance of this empty work. Whether so is better these forces to direct on more useful occupations: improvement of professional skill, work with the documentation or deeper studying of programs?
Certainly, the documentation should not be issued somehow, but what for perform work for nothing?
Let's consider some situations when standards are absent
Registration of specifications.
If to compare the custom-made specifications formed by the different design organisations on registration they will differ though each enterprise declares that its design documentation corresponds GOST standards. Registration is meant not as various frameworks, stamps and fonts, and information distribution under columns, headings of sections, an order of a conclusion of sections, etc. All it leads to that it is impossible to generate the uniform generator of reports which would satisfy to all organisations, – it is necessary to adjust the report which, apparently, is standard under each organisation and is regulated of GOST.
At adjustment of reports and formation of a DB of elements many problems create “no standardization” of GOST standards: where the material is written through a hyphen where through a blank and where at all it is not written – in respect of automatic formation of specifications GOST standards actually are not formalized.
If to compare custom-made specifications even within one enterprise, but generated by different structural divisions also they will differ, most likely, in respect of registration. In my practice there was such case: at one enterprise department A has entered one marks of armature (v1 – 30s41ng, v2 – other type, etc.), and department B which performs the same work, used another. It is the general question of standardization of work within one enterprise.
Let's consider standards on documentation performance in electronic form
And how the documentation in electronic form is carried out? Here where unequivocal standardization within the enterprise is required, and it is better – within branch!
When information interchange goes on the paper carrier, a major factor is possibility of competent interpretation of the information which is carried out by observance of GOST standards on documentation registration. But on paper carriers it is impossible to take advantage of drawings practically – them redraw anew (a building underlying cause, the process equipment, etc.).
At documentation performance in electronic form the situation cardinally varies. First, it is necessary to notice that the designer works with the electronic document and a file, instead of the drawing on a paper becomes for it the basic working object. Secondly, thanks to documentation performance in electronic form, it is possible to avoid repeated input of the information, carrying out its copying that saves time significant amount. However here there are some problems. To copy or redraw the drawing on the paper carrier, any special requirements to the initial document it is not shown. The documentation is in electronic form carried out in corresponding software, and even such simple action as copying of the information within one program, can cause difficulties.
As the elementary example we will consider a case of copying of the text information (for example, an explanatory note, the service record, the specification and so forth) from one Word-document in another. Often happens that after copying the text which in the initial document looked correctly, starts to part, distance between lines “floats”.
As a result the designer spends an extra time, and frequently and nerves for information reduction to a demanded kind. The reason of it are various standards (the standards concerning the program, that is characteristics of styles of the text and so forth), used in initial and target documents.
At performance of the graphic documentation, for example, in the environment of AutoCAD the situation becomes even more difficult. Let we have two drawings – And and – and it is necessary to copy a part of the information from the drawing A in B. Seemingly very simple problem on which decision should leave no more than minute. But in practice frequently it appears, what not all so is simple. Arising complexities are especially difficult for understanding to the employees working only with paper documents (on a paper of that is easier – you cut out (or you copy) and you paste into place). Actually information copying is influenced by following factors:
- a different way of the task of a thickness of a line;
- different scale of elements;
- various systems of layers (is even worse if they are partially crossed);
- various styles of the sizes, the text, types of lines, scale factors.
If all these factors coincide, that is, as a matter of fact, satisfy to the standard copying procedure passes smoothly. If standards do not coincide (and at many enterprises and business) the designer should spend an extra time (sometimes the considerable is!) on information reduction to a demanded kind. And so simple at first sight procedure is carried out at all for a minute. And now present, if in the initial documentation received from other department, there were changes?!
Thus, even at use of the elementary operation of copying of the information it is required, that documents satisfied to the uniform standard on documentation performance in electronic form. It is necessary to underline that the standard should describe not only such positions as the stamp maintenance, distance between lines, but also software options in which the design documentation is developed, it should operate with concepts of software, for example regulates a set of layers, a way of the task of a thickness of a line, styles of the sizes, scale in which the model, a principle of creation of drawings, names of files, names of models, etc.
is carried out
Improving technologies of designing with use CAD, it is possible to notice that simple copying of the information possesses an essential lack: at change of the design documentation (for example, the building underlying cause has changed) it is necessary to insert earlier copied information repeatedly. For its elimination in AutoCAD very powerful mechanism of reference files which allows has been entered:
- to guarantee identity, for example, a building underlying cause in all sections of the let out project;
- facilitates process of check of the documentation on a collision;
- allows accessory manufacturers to reflect changes in due time;
- to carry out parallel designing;
- to organise complex designing with through transfer of the graphic information within the limits of 2D-designing in the environment of AutoCAD without special programs.
To involve the given mechanism, accurate conformity of the developed documentation to standards is required. Otherwise the similar mechanism to maintain it will not turn out.
If the design documentation is executed uniformly, that is satisfies to the developed standard over group of drawings it is possible to make group actions. For example, it is possible to change in a stamp year or to replace one surname with another, to put down numbers of pages, to unpack group of drawings, etc. Certainly, working out of additional small programs but if drawings are issued without any standard possibility of application of group actions is absent basically is necessary for performance of the given procedures. And how many in this case it is required to the designer to time, for example, on replacement of year in stamps or object names? This point in question becomes especially actual if delivery term comes nearer.
The arguments put above show necessity of introduction of standards on documentation performance in electronic form. But after introduction of standards there is a problem on control of their observance.
Let's consider the organizational party of a question
On the majority of the enterprises the control actually is absent, that is the service normative control does not carry out the function: it does not trace conformity of the developed documentation to standards on its performance in electronic form though for designers it is primary. As a whole it turns out that the service normative control works on the contrary: there, where standards are necessary, she is not engaged in them, and there where they superfluous, traces them. It is necessary to direct its activity to a correct channel that efficiency of process of working out the design-budget documentation was criterion of work.
Let's consider a question technical aspect
Since AutoCAD 2002 check on standards is carried out by a method of comparison with a file of standards AutoCAD. The given way allows to adjust easily demanded checks, but has an essential lack – the limited rules of check. This way it is impossible to check up, for example, presence “dust” outside of format drawing frameworks, presence most format drawing frameworks (the analysis on various formats), year of release of the documentation etc. For removal of such restriction is required the algorithmic approach to check of the data.
Thus, applied to AutoCAD means does not allow to spend high-grade check of the documentation of graphic aspect of representation.
Introduction of uniform rules of release of the working design documentation (including the documents, concerning logistics) within the limits of a uniform information field is an indispensable condition for the enterprises participating in maintenance of all life cycle of products.
Let's consider a problem of creation and introduction of the standard of the automated designing on an example of use of software AutoCAD
, however the given approach can be realised and for others CAD.
So, in the course of working out of the standard of the automated designing it is necessary to solve following basic questions:
1. definition of elements of the drawing, standardization subjects;
2. working out of principles of distribution of the information on layers for increase of an overall performance with drawings;
3. a choice of methods of standardization of text and dimensional styles in a context with scaling principles;
4. working out of the standard of typical images on the basis of use of blocks in drawings according to the general standards of CAD;
5. use of office files (templates, files of standards, etc.) at introduction of standards of CAD;
6. standardization of properties of graphic objects AutoCAD within the limits of the enterprise standard;
7. a choice of variants of the organisation of a file of the drawing;
8. working out of main principles diversity of information on spaces (space of model and sheet space);
9. process automation normative control on conformity to standards of CAD; working out of a technique of full check of the drawing;
10. Updating let out and registered electronic documentation.
On the basis of 3D-models and specialised software products we plan to shine problems of release of documentation in following issues of the magazine. For now we will consider variants of the decision of first six of listed above the questions concerning in more to a measure to working out of the 2D-documentation, having lowered separate technical details.
Let's consider the elements of drawings which are subject to standardization
Let's consider information distribution on layers
For effective distribution of the information on layers introduction in names of layers of office symbols that will allow is necessary:
- to build hierarchical structures of elements of the drawing;
- to distinguish and process their software of CAD-system (thus it is necessary to consider that placing of any information on an office layer “0” irrationally).
Further an office symbol with which all files created by the user and layers of templates begin, the symbol « is;_” (underlining).
Observance of these elementary rules provides possibility of the further automatic check of the drawing on conformity to standards of CAD. Remains “only” to develop the necessary procedures and to agree about rules of their use.
Let's consider standards of formats
Doubtless object of standardization are formats of sheets (according to common system for design documentation requirements). Templates of formats consist of frameworks, stamps and proofs of corresponding forms. At creation of these templates it is necessary to minimise quantity of used elements of the drawing – first of all such, as layers, blocks and text styles. Besides, it is rather desirable to confirm in process of creation of templates them in normative control the enterprises.
In drawing the example of structure and the organisation of a template of format A1 (horizontal, the form 33, sheet 1) is presented. Filling of stamps and proofs can be executed on the type presented on one of following two drawings.
The template in drawing contains a layer _F33_L1 _ that means: the form 33, sheet 1. The layer _VP_ is created for placing of the information which are not subject to printing.
Following object of standardization are types of lines and their thickness. For 2D-drawings it is expedient to co-ordinate types of lines applied by the designer and their thickness to names of layers and colour (within the limits of corresponding designs). In this article the realisation of standards constructed, unlike foreign analogues, on the basis of templates, instead of programs is offered.
The template of types of lines (drawing see) contains graphic representation of applied types of lines and the text styles distributed on colour, a thickness and a layer. Graphic representation is convenient for assignment to primitive things of demanded properties by means of command AutoCAD _matchprop.
Types of lines, thickness, colour and an accessory to layers (see table 1 and drawing). The quantity of layers depends on specificity of the organisation of work of the enterprise.
|The layer name ||Colour of a line ||The thickness at printing ||Line type
We will consider standards of texts and the sizes
Standards of texts and are based the sizes on GOST and are realised by means of creation of corresponding text and dimensional styles (table 2). The template of types of lines resulted above also contains graphic representation of the text and dimensional styles distributed on colour and a layer.
Table 2. Text styles
|The name of style of the text ||Appointment ||The characterization ||The layer name
||Inscriptions of sections, kinds, scales
||Font Arial, compression 1.0, height 7
||The basic technical requirements
||Font Arial, compression 1.0, height 5
||Numbers of positions
||Font Arial, compression 0.8, height 3.5
||Inscriptions of designations of welding, the code number and mark of a cable, number of contacts
||Font Arial, Font Arial, compression 1.0 height 3.5
||other text in the field of the drawing (the sizes, a designation of welding, an inscription in the field of the drawing)
||Font Arial, compression 1.0, height 2.5
In the course of working out of the design documentation if necessary it is possible to modify the nomenclature of text and dimensional styles (for example to remove unnecessary style to add new to change existing, etc.).
Let's consider typical images on the drawing
Templates of typical images and symbols are expedient for making out in the form of the dynamic blocks which nomenclature in many respects depends on specificity of a projected product. In table 3 the structure and a kind of templates of this type are illustrated.
Table 3. Typical images
|Block AutoCAD name ||The explanatory
|marks a marking-off from above
|no decree roughness
|symbols, the table
|a roughness return
Let's consider use of office files
For installation of the system variables AutoCAD providing correct use of developed templates, and also, in our opinion, it is expedient to apply package files of type SCR to creation of uniform information circle of all participants of designing and product building.
The first development cycle of standards is training of experts, after (and it is frequent and in process) which features of work of design departments are found out. Competent technical requirements are as a result formed, and on their basis the standard document is developed “The enterprise standard at release of documents with use CAD”. The second stage comes to the end with its coordination and the statement. The third and last development cycle of standard of CAD – preparation of technical base for its introduction: creation of a necessary set of office files, the templates, reference drawings. The volume of this work is in each specific case various.
However it is necessary to notice that the main problem consists nevertheless not in CAD-Standard release, and in its observance by all divisions of the enterprise. And the decision of the given problem lies in working out of the applied program application providing automatic tracing of conformity let out electronic documents to requirements of the standard of the enterprise and its interactive updating. It, in our opinion, will allow to make process of introduction of standard of CAD faster and less painful.
Today, not only on the design documentation the general requirements (not foreign) of GOST standards are imposed, but also activity of the design organisation is exposed to optimisation for the purpose of conformity to requirements of foreign universal standards, in particular, ISO 9001:2000.
Let's consider features of application of standard ISO 9001:2000 in the design organisations
The Russian designers at carrying out of the contract auctions or negotiations with foreign customers-investors even more often come up against a situation when an indispensable condition of the conclusion of the contract is presence of system of a quality management, certificated according to requirements of standard ISO 9001:2000 (GOST R ISO 9001-2001). In the Governmental order of the Russian Federation from February, 2nd, 1998 N 113 “About some measures directed on improvement of systems of maintenance of quality of production and services” it is offered “to consider as the major problem of federal enforcement authorities realisation of support of subjects of the economic activities introducing systems of quality on the basis of state standards of a series of GOST R ISO 9000 with a view of increase of competitiveness of let out production and given services”.
The design organisations (DsO) today work under the rigid control of customers, and for them realisation of the first principle of a quality management – orientation to the consumer – is way of a survival in market conditions.
At a stage of the conclusion of the contract customers-builders demand today from DsO:
- To develop the project of the design assignment and all necessary materials for a platform choice;
- To present on the coordination as a part of the contract the standard on structure and registration of the design documentation, including regulations of signatures of heads and experts DsO;
- To define in special conditions to the contact structure of complete sets of the design documentation focused on various categories of users (a management of the customer-builder, equipment manufacturer, the building contractor, etc.);
- To present simultaneously with the contract the insurance contracts issued when due hereunder.
At a stage workings out of the design documentation
DsO is obliged to co-ordinate with the customer-builder the basic design decisions before their detailed study and to participate in carrying out of state expert appraisal of the design documentation.
At a stage performance of civil and erection works and object input in operation
the customer-builder watches that DsO operatively brought in the design documentation (including in an archival copy of the customer-builder) the changes caused by scientific and technical progress, updating of norms and rules on designing, building and object operation, and developed the corresponding additional design documentation. At this stage participation DsO in the working and state commissions on acceptance of the objects finished by building in operation is obligatory.
Creation experience in system of a quality management according to requirements of standards ISO of a series 9000:2000 has shown that for their successful functioning it is necessary not only to fulfil all requirements of the standard, but also to consider specific conditions and features of design activity, and also practice of work concrete DsO.
Now more than 300 ACROSS Russia have the certificate on system of a quality management or have started introduction of the given system (by different estimations in a building complex of Russia function more than 40 thousand design and survey organisations). In most cases the decision on introduction of system of a quality management is accepted under the pressure of customers on building. Interest of the customer is clear: he would like to receive the quality assurance of the future design-budget documentation already at a stage of the conclusion of the contract, and also to provide continuous increase of satisfaction. The management purpose of DsO, introducing of system of a quality management according to requirements of standard ISO 9001:2000 (GOST R ISO 9001-2001), is technological an order
: Accurate distribution of powers and responsibility for quality of design decisions, maintenance of process of designing with necessary resources, revealing and elimination of the reasons of claims of customers and bodies of state expert appraisal and, as consequence, continuous improvement of cumulative indicators of activity of the organisation. Theoretically and should be. However in practice the real advantage of introduction of system of a quality management is felt less by than half introduced it DsO. Designers consider efficiency of introduction of system of a quality management low for following reasons:
1) standard requirements are not adapted for specificity of activity of DsO and features design-budget documentation
are not considered;
2) the majority of customers superficially understand requirements of standard ISO 9001:2000 and their requirements are inconsistent;
3) there are not enough advisers who professionally know work DsO and can benefit the concrete organisation;
4) the top management of DsO does not allocate necessary resources for working out and introduction of system of a quality management;
5) the general director of DsO actually subcontracts a management of this work to one of the assistants, explaining it to that it has more important issues;
6) documents of system of a quality management are bought (are copied) from the related organisations or their working out is entrusted to the invited advisers;
7) heads and experts in the field of DsO are not included in processes of creation of system of a quality management and not interested in its introduction, etc.
Certainly, elimination of these reasons very important for successful introduction of system of a quality management in DsO, however within the limits of given article to us would be desirable to stop in more details on the first reason.
As it is known, the international standards are universal standards in which world experience of quality management is united. Such universality allows to apply the given standards to activity any kind (for example, in building, designing, a banking, educational institutions etc.). It is advantage of standards, however, at application of their requirements in the organisations of various kinds of activity, for example, in designing, without original “bindings” not to manage.
Before to introduce of system of a quality management according to requirements of standards ISO of a series 9000, it is necessary to reveal the features inherent in design and survey activity, to adapt them for requirements of standards and only after that to start construction of effective, harmoniously developing system.
Let's consider these the features inherent in design and survey activity
The turnkey contract consists without finished goods, i.e. without design-smektnoj documentation.
As at the contract conclusion there are no finished goods DsO should convince the customer that it can fulfil its requirements in full. It is reached by demonstrations
to the customer of the qualified estimation of requirements of the possible contract, and also the procedures of the control established in the organisation, estimations, checks, the analysis, validation and coordination of design decisions, and also material possibilities of DsO.
Initiation possibility additional requirements of the customer
(prospective requirements of the customer are understood as such requirements, which designers formulate instead of
the customer, anticipating its positive reaction to the offered innovations and higher degree of its satisfaction). The established requirements of the customer (in the contract, the task and the initial data for designing, in operating normative and technical documents) all organisations by definition will execute equally: in standard documents the bottom borders of requirements are established, i.e. It is impossible to make is worse. For successful existence in the market it is necessary to make something additional
on purpose to interest the customer, to keep it and, thus, to cut down expenses on searches of new clients. Competitiveness of the enterprise depends not so much on performance of the established requirements, how many from ability DsO creatively to expand their range, to count the possibilities put in the contract, to anticipate and realise additional requirements of the customer by the time of delivery of design-budget documentation .
Advantage of DsO before other building organisations consists that the nomenclature of additional requirements (within a firm contractual price) is rather considerable that allows DsO to form with success “a portfolio of orders”. We will replace that increase of satisfaction of customers thus is provided and new major requirements of GOST R ISO 9001-2001 (the preface to GOST R ISO 9001-2001, the penultimate paragraph are realised; section 0.2, the first paragraph; 1.1 “b”; 5.2; 6.1 “b”; 7.2.1 “e”).
Prospective requirements can concern to:
1) the form of design production (granting to the customer of breadboard models or computer modelling, transfer to the customer on the electronic carrier of a part of the project which will be in process of construction frequent to vary (specifications on materials));
2) architectural expressiveness of design decisions (for example, performance of the project with national colour or symbolics, in style of antiquity, avant-guard, etc.);
3) to performance of treaty obligations (acceleration of terms of performance of the contract, delivery of design-budget documentation in parts for separate starting turns, free carrying out of architectural supervision);
4) to new directions of activity (delivery of custom-made specifications, placing of orders for the equipment, preassembly audit of the equipment, training of the personnel of the customer, etc.);
5) to performance of additional requirements of the customers formulated in the course of building, but without change of cost of design works;
6) to performance of the works carried by operating standard documents to the competence of the customer, etc.
Thus, prospective requirements of the customer are defined in the organisation and are strong competitive advantage. But to keep and interest this customer, at the following work with it it will be necessary to think out new prospective requirements. The algorithm described above “starts” one of mechanisms of continuous perfection of activity of DsO (it is expedient to conduct in DsO a database of prospective requirements to which the chief engineer (the main architect) the project can address at the analysis and the contract conclusion).
Production DsO represents model of the future fixed capital, ways of their creation and operation.
Introduction of system of a quality management should benefit DsO. The correct estimation of features of production of DsO allows to provide within the limits of the standard not only performance of planned degree of quality of design-budget documentation, but also its continuous increase. The standard obliges (item 7.3.2 of GOST R ISO 9001-2001) to legalise working out and introduction of the major documents having a direct bearing on quality of design-budget documentation , such, for example, as
- technological rules of designing;
- standards on structure and the maintenance of the design documentation;
- regulations of signatures;
- requirements to the documentation regulating process of operation of constructed object;
- lists of the initial data for designing, including materials of researches, the documentation subcontract DsO, specifications on connections to objects of power supply, a heat supply, water supply, the water drain, etc.;
- lists of standard documents (GOST, building norms and rules, etc.), used at designing;
- lists of obligatory standard projects for application, typical knots and details, early the developed individual design decisions for repeated application;
- lists of the equipment resolved for application, materials, products, etc.
This offer has the status “new as well forgotten old” if to recollect that such work was carried out always by the main experts of technical departments of DsO.
It is natural that working out of the above-stated documents should be planned, its results to be checked and analyzed, it is necessary to allocate necessary resources, including qualified personnel. These materials are object of continuous changes that is connected with scientific and technical progress in building.
Productivity of activity of DsO is provided with specific personnel structure.
As in DsO the majority of experts with higher education (to 90%) the quantity of the documentation in which ways of performance of requirements of the standard are described, can be essentially reduced. In DsO number to 100 persons it is quite enough to develop and confirm of one “The quality manual” in which structure there will be an information concerning obligatory documentary procedures.
Documents of system of a quality management defining to the politician in the field of quality, should, including have the purpose – to form at the personnel of the sense of stability, clear prospects that is especially important for female collectives (to 80% of experts in the field of DsO – women). The industrial environment should contain conditions, emotionally comfortable for experts: realisation of technical breaks at work with computer technics, work flexible hours, possibility to leave under supervision of children, granting of permits on bases of rest, creation of conditions for productive leisure after work. Considering high qualification of designers, the administrative decisions providing continuous improvement of process of designing, can be accepted not only at top management level DsO, but also at level of the main experts and engineers-designers.
the Critical factor for quality of design-budget documentation is actualisation of the specifications and technical documentation (reference document).
According to Federal agency on building and housing and communal services about 30% of remarks to DsO at building of objects (at architectural supervision) are connected with use irrelevant the reference document. It is necessary to give special attention to this point in question. It is recommended to define the nomenclature of all the reference document, standard projects, collections of typical knots and designs, directories where endurances from standard documents, etc. are resulted. It is necessary to regulate especially an order of application of the reference document on electronic carriers, meaning that these documents, as a rule, have no official status. Besides, always there is a possibility to unpack a copy of the reference document from the screen of the computer and thus to create bank of not considered reference documents.
For acceptance of the design decision and the control of its quality identical qualification is required.
Unlike any other activity in designing for monitoring procedure of quality of the design decision higher qualification, than at the executor of the design decision is not necessary: to check the design decision is actually to execute it in the second time. Therefore at planning of design works expediently on the control to reserve not less than 30% from necessary general expenditures of labour. The design decision which was developed, for example, by the engineer, the engineer should supervise also. However, it can make and the chief engineer of institute, however in it is not present economic feasibility. This feature of designing should be considered at distribution of powers and responsibility of designers for quality of design decisions in duty regulations. Besides, the expert who is carrying out quality assurance of design decisions, should be independent of heads and the executors, making these decisions.
There are no specifications of duration of designing and labour input of design works.
In the absence of such specifications in DsO monitoring of process of designing (in particular, as creative process) and its subsequent improvement is complicated. Hence, in DsO there should be necessarily a system of the account of actual expenditures of labour on which base labour input is defined. From the project to the project the given base will collect and be analyzed about improvement of process of designing. Further such mechanism will allow to plan correctly terms of performance of works and loading of industrial divisions.
Designing process does not come to an end at the moment of delivery of design-budget documentation to the customer, and proceeds before delivery of the constructed object in operation
. The matter is that the design documentation should correspond to all effective standards and rules at the moment of input of the constructed object in operation. For this purpose designers should trace all changes in design-budget documentation which arise during civil and erection works, and also change in sphere of the standard documentation. This feature leaves traces on delimitation of process of designing, i.e. The specified borders join activity of designers in performance of civil and erection works.
At formation of quality of the design decision the control, an estimation, check, the analysis, validation and the coordination are used.
First four actions and the coordination, as a rule, do not cause difficulties for understanding in DsO though, if to be fair designers show the big variety in treatments of these actions. As to validation this action should be specified.
– the instructions in the design documentation on those design decisions, which quality should be checked (are estimated) in the course of building or operation projected object (as a rule, the role of designers is underlined at realisation of the given design decision in the course of building). Necessity of carrying out валидации is ascertained and in building norms and rules 12-01-2004, but other terminology (in building norms and rules 12-01-2004 is thus used “The building organization” (item 4.4) is given following representation about “validation” – “The list of works and the designs, which indicators of quality influence safety of object and in the course of building are subject to an estimation of conformity to requirements of standard documents and the standards which are demonstrative base of observance of requirements of technical regulations”) . Refusal of DsO from validation – a sign of technical stagnation with all consequences following from it for competitiveness of design production in the market.
Thus, at drawing up of the internal standard of work it is necessary to be guided first of all by primary requirements – on expediency and uniformity, let even there are deviations from GOST standards (it is not necessary to adhere blindly to requirements of GOST standards). Otherwise it turns out that, having the plane, we move on it, as on the car.
In this question the service normative control (not very well, it is in what structural division, but communication with department CAD and designers should be direct) should play a considerable role: there, where introduction of standards in electronic form is necessary, they should be entered, and there where they have already become obsolete, they should be excluded from enterprise standards. Standards cannot be developed and forgotten about them once. They should be updated constantly according to current conditions.
For a long time already there is a question on labour productivity growth – it practically does not raise. But if to waste time on work performance for nothing, not to use modern DsO only on the ground that the target documentation does not satisfy of GOST standards, not to standardise and not to organise work in electronic form labour productivity will not grow very long.
Also it is necessary to notice that listed above feature of design activity at application of standard ISO in everyone concrete DsO can be shown differently, and it should be considered by working out system of a quality management.
1. Loza A. Standards: And what this such? (A part 1)//CAD and a drawing, #9, 2008. – PP.50-51 [http://www.CAD.ru/article.aspx?id=1951 7&iid=902]
2. Loza A. Standards: And what this such? (A part 2)//CAD and a drawing, #10, 2008. – PP.50-53 [http://www.CAD.ru/article.aspx?id=19640&iid=906]
3. Davidovich А., Platons U., Rogatchyov S., etc. Working out of the standard approach to release of the electronic design documentation in program Autodesk//CADmaster environment, #2 (37), 2007 [http://www.cadmaster.ru/articles/article_24272.html]
4. Podolsky M. S, Stepchenkov P.G. Features of the standard ISO 9001:2000 in the design organisations// Methods of Quality Management. – 2006. – #5. – PP.8-11
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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