For successful activity and development of the organisation performing design works at modern level, its strategy should answer such purposes, as increase of competitiveness of design services, reduction of terms of preparation of the design documentation, reduction of the general expenses for designing. Design preparation working out and preparation of manufacture of products are the basic stages influencing the decision of these problems. Since the given sphere is in department of technical services (design and technological departments) at the main experts of the organisation usually develops “narrowly technical” a sight at approaches to the decision of these problems, especially by consideration of questions of introduction of a new information technology (IT).
Let's consider methodology of designing of technological reequipment of machine-building manufacture
, offered SOLVER.
It is possible to present model of the modern machine-building enterprise in the form of a pyramid – the geometrical figure possessing the greatest stability. Such pyramid has, at least, four “a floor” which functioning is provided with industrial, information and administrative technologies.
|Model of the modern machine-building enterprise|
The basic offer SOLVER for the machine-building enterprises – the invitation to construction of Clever manufacture with responsibility for achievement of objects in view in a format “terms, quality, expenses”
The basis, the ground floor, manufacture is. On the second floor design-technological preparation of manufacture is carried out. The third floor is made by management services. On the top, fourth floor, strategy and tactics of development of the enterprise is defined. Continuing analogy to a pyramid, it is possible to assert that if four floors of the enterprise are proportionally developed and closely interconnected, it “a design” it is steady, and it can successfully develop the business.
Today owing to the historical and economic reasons of structure of many Russian machine-building enterprises are frequently far from this ideal. So, for example, to the enterprises investing large means in acquisition of the industrial equipment, but not providing due design-technological preparation, it is not possible to react operatively to market condition, in short terms to develop and start in manufacture new products. The operating device which has remained from old organizational structure is huge, but its work is inefficient, as are insufficiently worked (or there is no) a strategy of development and marketing
|The inefficient machine-building enterprises|
Or other case – ideas are well worked for the enterprise on strategy of development and marketing, design-technological preparation of manufacture provides operative start of products in manufacture. However the industrial base has become outdated and does not allow to let out production of necessary quality, the bad organisation of business processes brakes realisation of ideas.
Consequence of similar disproportions of development of floors of business are long cycles of manufacture, high expenses, poor quality of products.
Company SOLVER is engaged in engineering consulting in machine-building branch the fifteenth year. Applying the techniques checked up by practice and approaches, SOLVER helps the machine-building enterprises to solve actual industrial and organizational problems: to reduce terms of manufacture of products, to raise their quality, to reduce industrial expenses.
Let's consider methodology SOLVER.
Construction of effective manufacture at the machine-building enterprises is carried out with use of author's methodology SOLVER “Three projects”.
The spectrum offered SOLVER decisions covers the enterprise as a whole, all its floors – from manufacture and technical training of manufacture before management of industrial resources of the enterprise and life cycle of products.
|Effective manufacture at the machine-building enterprises|
Technologies and the techniques used by experts of the company, give the chance to our customers to begin positive transformations with any of four floors of business, stage by stage extending the reached success to the enterprise as a whole.
The purpose of these transformations – technical and organizational reequipment of the enterprise for creation of system of the output as much as possible satisfying inquiries of end users, so, making for the enterprise the maximum profit. The methodology of work SOLVER with the enterprises-customers is author's and has received the name “Three projects”. She assumes consecutive performance of a pilot project, the project of introduction and the industrial project – from experimental prototypes of effective manufacture to operating, extending the reached successes to all enterprise as a whole.
|Transformations at the machine-building enterprises|
Let's consider a pilot project.
The work with machine-building enterprise SOLVER begins with pilot project realisation in which course the customer receives full representation about that, as well as what technological, hardware-software means and organizational actions it is possible to solve its concrete workplace issue.
In other words, following the results of the project the customer receives a substantiation of possible variants of construction of effective manufacture on the basis of creation of experimental prototypes of productions.
The Optimum variant of manufacture chosen following the results of realisation of a pilot project, provides the minimum time of recovery of outlay of necessary investments.
Offered SOLVER a grocery ruler as the working tool almost completely satisfies to requirements of the machine-building enterprises for metal working, design and technological preparation of manufacture, in production management and life cycle of products, in the organisation of technical document circulation.
During the pilot project on pre-production by designing parts and components, which are most difficult for companies to develop and manufacture, analyzed the functional units (the dynamics and strength), for detail developed processing technology and control programs for CNC equipment, if necessary, are made prototypes of products. In the production of a pilot project offers based on a thorough simulation and analysis of the optimal variant production technology (with a list of equipment, cutting tools, tooling). Such experimental work conducted SOLVER closely with specialists of the company to accurately plan the elimination of most of bottlenecks (constraints) and the results are fully discussed with the heads of enterprises in the context of “as it became” a detailed evaluation of the technical and economic benefits (payback and ROI). To improve the reliability of the developed technologies of production (in the pilot projects) in Moscow is up and running Tech Center SOLVER “Complete automation of production in machine building”, become “polygon” for field studies on the treatment regimes established here with modern equipment. Thus, getting tested solutions, the company can virtually be assured of the reality and effectiveness of their implementation.
During the pilot project managers have the company formed a clear idea of what specific hardware and software and the number needed to achieve these goals, that makes it possible to prepare a really reasonable specification for the supply of technological equipment, accessories and tools, software and hardware.
During performance of a pilot project at directors the fair idea about is formed what particularly technical both software and their quantity are necessary for achievement of objects in view that gives the chance to prepare really well-founded specification on delivery of the process equipment, equipment and the tool, hardware-software means.
The pilot project is carried out before delivery of the equipment at the expense of resources SOLVER, and it considerably reduces the subsequent period of introduction demanding working out both optimum technology, and optimumCNC-programs.
Without a pilot project search of optimum technology is carried out after equipment delivery that considerably extends process of introduction which can come to the end and at all with an unfavourable conclusion: “have bought not absolutely that or completely not that equipment for manufacture of the given products”. Expensive time of introduction, and also means for acquisition of this equipment will be in vain spent.
Let's consider the introduction project.
Pilot project results serve as a starting point for a following stage – the introduction project.
The introduction project includes not only traditional starting-up and adjustment works (with the subsequent guarantee, post warranty service) and training of experts of the enterprise, but that the most important thing, provides creation at the enterprise of the technical and organizational bases supporting new technologies. Such bases concern, first of all, special standard base on productions (designing, manufacturing, adjusting, the expense of the tool, etc.) and system of professional certification of the personnel on degree of development of the established specifications.
The created standard base of processes of new manufacture in a combination to certification of experts of the enterprise guarantees irreversible transition to new “know-how”.
In the introduction project the operating prototype of the new manufacture based on carefully worked on stage of pilot project to listed products (and their production program) with allocation of the limited quantity of groups of the same details and details-representatives corresponding to these groups is created. On small details-representatives typical business processes of manufacture of details of the numerous listed products are created. As the quantity of details-representatives essentially less than initial quantity of all details of the industrial nomenclature, the introduction period is sharply reduced without any damage to quality of process of introduction: in process of introduction of technologies on details-representatives there is a transition to development of manufacturing techniques of all details of corresponding groups. Thus manufacture of details of group can begin right after development of its detail-representative, without waiting the terminations of process of introduction on other details-representatives that also reduces introduction process.
On the contrary, work without organised “SOLVER” the introduction project is “fan” work with all nomenclature of details (on current production plans). Thus the introduction period sharply increases: resources are spent for development of new manufacture of numerous same products.
The period of the project of introduction from the moment of start-up and adjusting before full development by experts of the enterprise of new technologies should be minimised, since process of a recoupment of investments into these technologies begins only after steady construction of new productions.
In the project of introduction defining there is a role of experts of the enterprise.
In the project of introduction from SOLVER the major methodological link is the created standard base on business processes of new manufacture of details-representatives that in a combination to certification of experts of the enterprise on possession of these standard processes provides steady transition to new “know-how”.
Without such it is rigid “imposed” standard base there is a partial recoil on “convenient” for a long time towards manufacture faltering character and as result, the introduction period is tightened (sometimes for years) has the mastered old technologies, i.e. movement.
The introduction project has the organizational structure which built and has been checked up by operational experience SOLVER with the advanced machine-building enterprises. Experts of the enterprise and SOLVER in common work on introduction subjects in the Design groups which structure, as well as solved problems, is defined by the order of the director of the enterprise.
The control of a condition of introduction is carried out by Operating council led by the director of the enterprise into whom heads of all industrial divisions participating in business processes of introduction enter.
Thus, the accurate plan of action of experts in introduction of new technologies is created and the mechanism of the control of results of these actions is entered into the confirmed terms of the project of introduction.
Let's consider the industrial project.
In industrial projects the accent is directed on perfection of a control system by manufacture.
After the introduction project a following stage of cooperation SOLVER with the enterprise is the industrial project. Here concrete technical and organizational problems on the basis of the created new productions are solved. The accent in industrial projects is directed on perfection of a control system by manufacture which in many respects defines terms of manufacturing of the products, being key competitive advantage.
Work in formats of three projects (experimental, introductions, industrial) carry out joint design groups where experts SOLVER and the enterprises enter under the developed regulations.
Let's consider reached result.
During realisation of joint projects synchronisation and effective interaction of all components of business of the enterprise-customer is reached. This circumstance, in turn, allows to provide success and high rates of its development.
Some “experts” as introduction of IT understand the equipment of group of the automated workplaces (automated workplace) and their connection by a network cable. The methodological aspect drops out of consideration: evolution of IT has led to change of principles of designing of hi-tech industrial products and interactions of the experts participating in this process. It is shown that in technical training of manufacture by object of working out there is not complete set of design documentation, and the electronic description of a product. In this connection at the enterprises following problems come to light:
- Absence of uniform techniques of creation and use of 3D-electronic model of a product;
- Absence of the regulating documents defining structure and fixing the status of electronic model (EM) of a product in a role of the primary source of the engineering data;
- Low level of the organisation of interaction between experts of various design divisions;
- Low technical equipment of design divisions.
The good situation which has developed in the Russian automobile market, has pushed administration to carrying out of the program of modernisation of base model IZH-2126 and, as a necessary condition for this purpose, – to development of sphere of designing at the enterprise. The technological aspect of realisation of the program at the enterprise consists in working out and development of methodology of a supply with information of all life cycle of a product on the basis of modern information systems and technologies. For the decision of these problems experts of engineering-consulting company SOLVER have been involved, and the overall objective of a joint Pilot project had been chose study of the organizational-methodological principles regulating the organisation of work with electronic models of details.
Works under the project included:
- A methodological part: definition of status of EM of a product, an order of its working out and requirements to it, rules of information support of EM at early stages of life cycle of a product;
- A practical part: creation of EM of the left forward door of car IZH-2126 (mastered in industrial production without electronic support) various methods (on design documentation and by measurement), the comparative analysis of these methods; study of a technique of creation and updating of EM.
Let's consider methodology of the electronic description of a product, we will enter definition of technologies, objects and methods on an example of design activity “IZH-CAR”.
Design activity of the considered enterprise is one of the basic fields of activity of the enterprise to what testify almost 30-year-old operational experience of the Izhevsk automobile design bureau. During project performance it was necessary to establish its methodological connection with other spheres of activity of the enterprise – the market analysis, production management and production sale. At the heart of strategy of development of sphere of designing and manufacture preparation (DMP) the technique of reengineering and automation of business processes (i.e. sets of operations over material and information streams), providing product life cycle (set of the stages passed by a product from revealing of requirement of the market and manufacture before operation and the subsequent recycling) have been put. These approaches allow to strengthen interrelations between separate components of corporate structure, between stages of life cycle of a product, provide construction of optimum business processes.
The information aspect of realisation of business processes, as a rule, is reflected in the form of document circulation. For creation of new methodology of designing by experts SOLVER it was offered to use the integrated information models of production and the processes, not having direct analogues in traditional paper document circulation and the elementary forms of electronic document circulation (based on use of electronic images all the same paper documents). And as a basis for formation of models of production and processes to use principles of CALS-technologies which find now wide application abroad and in Russia. All volume of the information on a product according to principles of CALS-technologies can be distributed on stages of its life cycle as follows:
- the design data – data on product structure, on its geometrical models, on communications and parities in product structure etc.;
- the technological data – data on ways of manufacturing and quality assurance of a product and its components in the course of manufacture, associate with the information objects describing a product and its components;
- the industrial data;
- the data about quality;
- the logistical data;
- the operational data.
Necessity of fast processing of great volume of the polytypic information which are used in processes DMP and being in associative communication, assumes transition to the electronic form of conducting design works, active use of electronic information objects. For the decision of this problem experts SOLVER it is offered to use the full electronic description of a product (FEDP) which integrates the information from all divisions of the enterprise participating in process of creation of a product, includes information blocks and associative communications between them. Experts of divisions have a possibility at any moment to obtain the actual data about a product and processes of work on it. Further certain components FEDP can be used also suppliers and the service organisations.
|Schematic display of process of growth of the information maintenance of electronic model of a product: design stages and attached to EM information objects|
The methodological basis of the electronic description of a product is made by EPD-technologies (Electronic Product Definition) according to which, all information concerning one product, is structured on type, appointment and coordinates with sequence of business processes of maintenance of life cycle of a product (according to structure of the product). Realisation of EPD-approaches at the modern machine-building enterprise is directly connected with introduction of a new information technology, the basic which tool means are systems CAD/CAM/CAE/PDM. For construction of uniform system of information support of a product performance of some conditions, among which – full compatibility of applied software products and formats of data presentation used by them is necessary. Such requirements also are taken as a principle CALS-technologies. Application of information models and the standardised methods of access to the data form a basis for effective information cooperation of all participants of life cycle of hi-tech products which the car concerns.
By experts SOLVER have been offered (on the basis of company PTC products) the following methods based on the EPD-approach:
- Parallel engineering (Concurrent Engineering) – a method at which experts of various applied areas work in a mode parallelization of business processes;
- Flexible engineering (Flexible Engineering) – a method of working out of a product and preparation of its manufacture by means of electronic modelling, without resorting to creation of physical models-prototypes;
- Collaborative Product Commerce (CPC) – the functioning method, allowing to organise support of production on the basis of Internet technologies.
Let's consider electronic model of a product.
Experts SOLVER it was offered to divide methodologically FEDP on two interconnected components:
- EM products – the set of information objects including design, technological and other information on a product from all sites of process of designing;
- EM designing process – the set of information objects including the information on methods, rules (coordination, statements, modification) and participants of process of designing.
Both models are integrated into a single whole by means of system of class PDM (Product/Project Data Management), for example Windchill.
EM products includes all data about a product: 3D-solid-state models CAD, is final-element models for analytical calculations, the description of technical processes, features of functioning of a product, etc. Structure and product structure EM change in the course of life cycle: at each stage to EM new components are added. Their list and the description is resulted in the international standards ISO. According to ISO 10303 EM products, includes in the structure following blocks of the information:
- Geometrical given (solid-state surfaces with topology, facet surfaces, etc.);
- The information on a configuration of a product and administrative given (the identifiers of the enterprise given about variants of structure and structure of a product; the data about changes of a design and the information on documenting of these changes etc.);
- The engineering data prepared by means of various software products in various formats.
The structure of the listed components can include following information objects:
- 3D-geometrical model of object (or mathematical model) – an electronic data carrier about the geometrical form of object of designing (detail) which unequivocally defines coordinates and vectors-normals of any point on a form surface. The model also stores in itself construction history that allows to change the form of a surface or a volume body a method of change of numerical values of parametres or replacements of the elements entering into its history;
- 2D-analogue of 3D-geometrical model of object – an electronic data carrier about the geometrical form of object, it is associative connected with it 3D model; represents a projection 3D models on a spatial plane and is a basis for construction of the design drawing;
- An electronic breadboard model of a product – set interconnected 3D models of details, knots and product systems. The breadboard model is created on the basis of complex CAD/CAM/CAE-system of high level (for example, Pro/ENGINEER). The breadboard model accumulates in itself the basic volume of the design data about a product: the geometrical data, the information on interaction of details, knots (kinematics, dynamics), and also the technological information;
- The computer drawing – a copy traditional “paper” the drawing entering into the complete set of the design documentation;
- The operating program (OP) for the machine tool with CNC – a set of operating instructions in codes of the machine tool with CNC. OP it is accompanied by a settlement-technological card;
- The control program – a set of operating instructions in codes of the coordinate-measuring machines (CCM), intended for the control of geometry of a product;
- The data of gaugings – a set of coordinates of points, curve, the surfaces received as a result of measurements of a detail by the coordinate measuring car, is made out in the form of the standard report of gaugings.
Thus, the 3D-geometrical model is:
- A source of the information on detail/product geometry;
- A basis for reception of the design documentation by means of 2D-analogue;
- Object for realisation of the engineering analysis and carrying out of control and measuring works;
- A source of the information for working out of operating programs for the equipment with CNC;
- A source of the information which can be received with its help and it is used by experts of the enterprise in the course of preparation of manufacture and detail/product manufacturing.
Let's consider the status of electronic model of a product.
Foreign experts recognised that modern IT designing are capable to reverse process of creation of new cars, since a stage of study of the design project. Manufacturing of scale breadboard models from plasticine nowadays is considered no more than abstract exercise. Technologies CAS/CAD/CAM allow to exclude completely this stage from a cycle of design works on creation of the modern car, as well as drawing gouache sketches or drawing of form-building lines on curves.
EM of products, being today a basis for working out and introduction of new technologies, concepts and principles of designing of an industrial output (PDM, CALS, CPC, etc.), allows to reduce considerably at many stages of life cycle of a product release of the paper documentation. To EM of products actually have passed the functions belonging earlier to complete sets of the design and technological documentation. In this connection experts SOLVER it was offered to consider EM of products as object of designing: the product model, instead of the design documentation should be developed. Thus EM of products is a basis for creation FEDP.
So, experts SOLVER had been defined the status of electronic model of a product as follows: the electronic model of a product within the limits of new technologies, concepts and designing principles gets the status of the complete set of primary documents on structure, structure and properties of the product. This model is base for the structured description of processes and participants of life cycle of a developed product.
Let's consider a technique of working out EM of a new product.
1. Working out of a new product (or modernisation existing) was it is offered to carry out in the form of the project. For performance of the similar project within the limits of existing organizational structure the design group consisting of experts in various fields of knowledge is allocated: the marketing expert, the designer, the technologist etc. Management of design group is carried out by the leading expert, carrying out of preparation of manufacture familiar with features. The project head the designer-developer of the given product is appointed, it bears full responsibility for the organisation of activity of design group and results of work.
2. A basis to start works is the list of requirements to a projected product. According to offered SOLVER to the requirement approach to the projected car are shown by the customer of the project. The customer under the relation to the considered enterprise can be or internal (for example, marketing department), or external. The made demands (for example, results of marketing researches in a vide.doc-file) can become the first “a brick” electronic model of a product.
3. According to requirements the car concept over which the designer starts to work is created. Following a principle of free design modelling (free-form modelling), he creates car design model in system of the automated styling (system CAS, for example, ICEM Surf) taking into account the standard rules and personal representations about the form of the given class of products. Possibilities of use of technology of free design modelling have been shown by experts SOLVER in system ICEM Surf on an example of working out of a detail “The handle of the lever of a gear change” and an element “The back part of an ex-terrier of a variant “The versatile person”.
At a stage of design study for an estimation of ergonomics of projected products on EM prototypes of some details on installation of fast prototyping have been made.
4. EM, created by the designer, then it is transferred for design study (working out of the layout scheme, constructive elements etc.), with application of complex CAD/CAM/CAE (for example, Pro/ENGINEER). EM can be divided into some components, according to structure of a developed product (on elements, details) that allows to use technology of parallel engineering. Upon termination of a stage of design study for an estimation of quality of constructive decisions the model sample on technology RP also can be made.
5. At a following stage the technologist fills up EM of products with the technological information, making technical processes for manufacturing of details and product assemblage. Further the work course submits to specificity of processes of designing of a concrete kind of products. So, on EM of technical equipments in system CAM (for example, module Pro/NC for generation OP for multicoordinate milling machine tools with CNC and industrial robots) can be created operating programs. And then on machine tools with CNC form-building elements of industrial equipment are made. The given technology also has been tested during the Pilot project for manufacturing of a breadboard model of assemblage of a forward wing and a car door on the engraving-milling machine tool with CNC. For quality assurance of manufacturing of industrial equipment the control and measuring equipment is used. The control is carried out by automatic comparison of the data of gauging with reference EM.
6. For optimisation of interaction of experts of design group and for the control over performance of works by the project head special tool means can be used. By working out of difficult objects (in automobile, aviation, ship-building branches), and also at connection to the project of external developers are systems of class PDM (for example, Windchill). And by working out of objects of average complexity by forces of the enterprise are control systems of the engineering data (for example, Pro/INTRALINK). Experts SOLVER possess an operational experience and introductions of these systems.
Let's spend the analysis of technologies of working out of electronic models touring details.
Before are considered by the enterprise there is a problem of modernisation of the serial car. For this purpose it is necessary to solve following problems:
- Modernisation of an automated workplace and a choice of tool design tools;
- Study of uniform rules of work with EM of experts of various divisions;
- Study of procedure of creation EM of the details (products) already mastered in manufacture by traditional methods.
For the decision of the two first problems experts SOLVER had been offered program complex Pro/ENGINEER. World experience shows that software products and company PTC decisions allow to realise a full cycle of working out of a hi-tech product (in particular, the car), from the outline sketch or design study before manufacturing of industrial equipment and actually a product.
As object for the decision of the third problem has been chosen “The left forward door of car IZH-2126” two which electronic models it was necessary to create on various technologies:
- Modelling under the information received under drawings;
- Modelling according to measurement of physical master model on CCM.
At the decision of this problem on the first technology design modules Pro/ENGINEER were used: Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Pro/SURFACE, Advanced Assembly Extension. And for the decision of a problem which consisted in construction of a cylindrical surface of the set radius on any points belonging to a surface, and traditionally solved the geometrical way leading to bulky additional constructions, used module Beheverial Modeler possibilities. With its help analytical dependences have been set and the geometrical place of points of an axis of a required surface is calculated.
For working out of electronic model (EM2) details on the second technology were used the data of measurement of physical master model by coordinate measuring car OPTON (type SMM-MT-C of firm ZEISS) and modules Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Pro/SCAN-TOOLS, Import Data Doctor, Interactive Surface Design. As a rule, in the course of scanning of physical surfaces turn out “noisy” the data (“a cloud of points”), therefore they have been processed by module Pro/SCAN-TOOLS means. As a result the high-grade high-quality superficial model has been received.
Then the standard set of means of the analysis in Pro/ENGENEER (modules Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Pro/VERIFY, Pro/INTERFACE) had been spent comparison received EM. Results of comparisons have shown that the greatest deviations are in the points corresponding on EM1 to area of extended surfaces which have been constructed at insufficient completeness of the data in design documentation, only on boundary curves.
The greatest deviations by results of comparisons are revealed in the field of one of surfaces EM1.
The used program modules have allowed to construct the schedule of change of curvature of basic lines of this surface, and also to display curvature of this surface in U-U-directions.
For minimisation of deviations it is necessary to enter in design documentation the additional data, for example, sections or control points with lofting drawings. As a result of it character of behaviour of a surface in the given coordinates will correspond in a greater degree to master model and will allow to keep so-called tendencies of the form.
Also the additional analysis of distinctions of models EM1 and EM2 by means of module Beheverial Modeler by definition of a full field of deviations of compared surfaces has been made. Difference of the given analysis from the previous consists that in the first case distances between points in corresponding knots of the set grid are compared and, hence, has discrete character. In the second case the analysis gives an overall picture of deviations as are used all continuum of the points belonging to surfaces.
By results of comparisons following conclusions are drawn:
- Both models have high enough repeatability of characteristic properties of surfaces;
- Separate considerable deviations EM1 and EM2 have local character that is inevitable at insufficiency of the data about a way of the task of geometry of a surface;
- Results of comparisons should be considered taking into account that base points of models are various, and it leads to inevitable errors at combination of models and objectively reduces reliability of results of comparisons.
Let's consider a technique of working out of electronic model of the products mastered in industrial production.
The problem of creation of electronic model for the details mastered in industrial production can be carried to a class of specific problems reverse engineering. This class of problems is caused by necessity of motor industry for interface of traditional technologies of creation of external design (by means of models-breadboard models) and modern computer methods of 3D-modelling. On the basis of the works spent within the limits of the project, experts SOLVER had been offered a technique of creation of EM of the product mastered in industrial production without corresponding electronic support.
Process of creation of EM of a product includes following stages:
1. Creation of electronic model under the design documentation. Design documentation of details of difficult geometry (first of all touring) which has been made in due time without application of means of computer modelling and the analysis, as a rule, does not contain the sufficient information for adequate construction of difficult geometrical objects. Therefore the first stage is creation of EM of details on available design documentation, procedures of the coordination and specification of design documentation which allow to approach model to requirements of the designer-designer are thus inevitable. Necessary means: Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Pro/SURFACE, Advanced Assembly Extension;
2. Master model measurement by the measuring car. It is carried out in the presence of physical master model of a detail. Necessary means: the control and measuring equipment which can provide sufficient accuracy and speed of gaugings (for example, CCM firms Starrett);
3. Import of the data of measurement in Pro/ENGINEER and their processing;
Necessary means: Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Pro/SCAN-TOOLS, Import Data Doctor, Interactive Surface Design, Beheverial Modeler;
Import of the data of measurement to CAS-system and geometry editing.
Necessary means: Pro/INTERFACE, ICEM Surf.
This stage can be considered as alternative previous or as process of the subsequent “smoothing” curves and surfaces.
The analysis has revealed the certain lacks confirming conclusions, made at control comparison of electronic models EM1 and EM2 (it has been described earlier). Experts of the Izhevsk car factory recognise that ready details in places of difficult geometry has similar deviations. The given problem, obviously, consists in “manual” a way of designing of design documentation though it is necessary to recognise quality of geometry of other elements of a detail quite satisfactory.
At this stage work was spent both with a separate detail, and with several joined details. Upon termination of a stage created or modified 3D models are transferred from ICEM Surf in Pro/ENGENEER for carrying out of actually design works.
During the carried out project model of a surface of a detail “The wing” created in ICEM Surf, has been imported in Pro/ENGENEER, it is issued as a detail and it is joined with a detail “The door” executed in Pro/ENGENEER on design documentation.
4. A definitive stage of creation of electronic model of a detail with the full geometrical description;
Necessary means: Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Advanced Assembly Extension, Pro/SURFACE.
At this stage registration of the elements providing a collecting of a detail is carried out: flanges, propunchings, apertures, stamping radiuses etc. For construction of borders scraps (edges) it is more preferable to use the measurement data, and also lines of crossing of interfaced surfaces. The detail drawing thus is the document defining the basic bindings of a detail, mutual position of elements and other data which cannot be received in the course of master model measurement. Construction of joined elements under welding, registration of places of fastening of hinged details is made for collecting and associativity maintenance in a mode of assemblage according to design documentation.
In the course of the project was completed assembly of parts “Door” (EM, created by the drawings) and “Wing” (imported from the system of ICEM Surf and finalized in Pro / ENGINEER). As the availability of related components, must make constant monitoring of docking sites and interfaces, using the capabilities of the module Pro/ASSEMBLY possibilities.
The offered modules cover process of only geometrical modelling. For carrying out of such works as the analysis of dimensional chains, etc., a set of means it is necessary to expand calculations of durability, aerodynamics with modules Pro/ENGINEER CETOL SixSigma, Pro/Mechanica, packages of other developers (for example, NISA/DISPLAY);
5. Manufacturer of a physical prototype on machine tools with CNC.
Necessary means: Pro/ENGINEER Foundation, Advanced Assembly Extension, Pro/NC, Pro/NC-GPOST, Expert Machinist, Pro/NC-SHEETMETAL, the milling machine tool.
The breadboard model of a forward wing and car door has been executed in scale 1:10 on the engraving-milling machine tool with CNC. As initial geometry the assemblage consisting of superficial models of a wing and a door was used.
Trajectories of movement of tools have been constructed in module Pro/NC. Operating programs for the machine tool are generated by the postprocessor developed in Pro/NС-GPOST. As a material preparation from a nut was used. Technological possibilities of the machine tool, the maximum quality of a received surface and the minimum time of processing were criteria for a choice of modes of cutting and processing strategy;
6. Prototype manufacturing on installations of fast prototyping.
RP-technologies allow, to make prototypes of products directly on the electronic models developed in system CAD, to estimate their constructive and ergonomic characteristics.
For demonstration of possibilities of RP-technologies on installation FDM of 3000 firms Stratasys Inc. Have been made scale (1:15) prototypes of details.
Time of manufacturing of a detail “The wing” has made 20 hours, details “The door” – 23 hours.
7. Working out of the electronic drawing of a detail.
Pro/ENGINEER Allows to create on the developed electronic models design documentation, completely meeting the requirements of common system for design documentation.
Comparison of the initial (paper) drawing with received on 3D models allows to draw following conclusions:
- The sizes on the drawing received on 3D of model, are geometrically caused by designing process, their structure is necessary and sufficient for carrying out of the further stages of preparation of manufacture. At “manual” a way of creation of design documentation notation of the sizes it is conducted by subjective criteria and can lead to their redundancy or insufficiency. Crimson colour allocates group of the sizes which use leads to the contradiction with other data of the drawing, and in coordination with the customer they were not taken into consideration;
- The sizes which have been put down in the computer drawing, have two-forked associativity with 3D model and can be changed both in the model, and in the drawing;
- The computer drawing is a derivative 3D models and should be a part of complete set of design documentation about what corresponding record in a text part of the drawing (with instructions of a name of a file of model, assemblages should be made).
Let's result conclusions by results of the Pilot project.
New IT are the important part of engineering strategy of the enterprise and should extend on all stages of life cycle of a product. A basis for working out and introduction of technology, concepts and designing principles is the electronic model of a product. Thanks to possibilities of new technologies the electronic model of a product can and should get the status of the complete set of primary design documents. The works spent SOLVER in a practical part of a pilot project prove necessity as a primary source of the design information on a product to consider EM, the drawing should be in this case secondary. Technologies and the methods applied to the decision of problems put in the project, have proved the practical value and can be assumed as a basis for creation of a chain of integrated such difficult industrial product, as the car.
The program complex Pro/ENGINEER assumed as a basis of a chain of designing, provides:
- Carrying out of a full cycle of design working out of separate details, assemblages and the car as a whole;
- Creation of electronic models of details by two ways: under drawings (i.e. it is primary in Pro/ENGINEER) and by results of master model measurement (with use CCM);
- Use of the ready design decisions executed in system CAS (for example, in ICEM Surf);
- Interaction with various systems CAD (presence of direct interfaces);
- Application in a format of design groups.
As during project performance advantages of sharing ICEM Surf and Pro/ENGINEER for interaction of designers and designers have been shown:
- Information interchange occurs at level of the data about control points, the question on accuracy of data transmission thus simply does not arise;
- Changes of geometry the models which are carried out by the designer in the environment of ICEM Surf, are reflected in model Pro/ENGINEER over which the designer works. Thus associativity of design constructions with topology of model of the designer is not broken;
- Both systems allow to use at any design stage technologies of fast prototyping, in particular, technology FDM applied in the equipment of firm Stratasys Inc.
Approaches, techniques and the program decisions offered SOLVER, allow to raise quality of let out products, to reduce time of their preparation for manufacture, to optimise a management infrastructure on development, to prepare a basis for creation of corporate information base, it is essential to raise efficiency of administrative decisions.
1. Birbraer R., Okatev V., Thunderous S, etc. Creation of a prototype of the automated system of preparation of manufacture at stages of design, design and technological designing touring car IZH-2126 details//CAD and a drawing. – 2003. – #1 [http://www.mashportal.ru/solutions_development-211.aspx]
2. An official site of Open Society “IZH-CAR” [http://www.IZH-auto.ru]
3. SOLVER Engineering consulting – Complex technologies and the equipment for construction of clever manufacture at the machine-building enterprises [http://www.solver.ru]
The author: Челябэнергопроект
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