CRM (Customer Relationship Management System, CRM-system) – the corporate information system intended for automation of CRM-strategy of the company, in particular, for increase of a break-even sales level, optimisation of marketing and improvement of servicing by preservation of the information on clients (counterparts) and stories of mutual relations with them, establishments and improvements of business procedures and the subsequent analysis of results .
Let's consider management of mutual relations with clients CRM – a modern direction in sphere of automation of a corporate governance
That is cheaper: to find new clients or to keep already available? This dilemma at various times dared in own way. At the time of piece manufacture it was more favourable to keep available clients. The enterprises thoroughly knew the clients and had enough resources to focus the production on them. In the XX-th century – a century of mass production – the accent became on new clients. A maximum that presumed to itself the enterprise which is guided by requirements of the client, – to allocate the general segments of buyers with similar requirements and to focus the activity on a part from these groups. On boundary ХХ-XXI of centuries an information technology (IT) again gives the chance to us to be guided basically by available client base. To keep old clients begins more cheaply, than to find the new.
Development of the market and competition strengthening in the Russian economy compel the enterprises to search for competitive advantages. Such advantages can provide or internal industrial efficiency, or the best in comparison with competitors orientation to the market.
Industrial efficiency is provided now with corporate control systems ERP (enterprise resource planning – planning of resources of the enterprise). In the Russian market such systems are presented as the domestic companies-developers (“Эталон” “Парус” “Галактика” etc.), and western (SAP, Baan, etc.).
The information systems providing effective orientation to the market, systems of class CRM at the moment are. The given systems are directed on creation of extensive base “faithful” clients which just also is long-term competitive advantage for the enterprise. Such systems have appeared only in the mid-nineties and are in a development stage, therefore in the Russian market they are presented much to a lesser degree, than systems ERP.
In Russia CRM-systems only find popularity. Seminars, presentations are held, software products are shown, articles are published. However till now the main emphasis in these actions of popularisation of CRM-technologies becomes on possibility of conducting continuous interaction with clients on the questions connected with advancement, sale and support of products and services, i.e. on operational activity. Undoubtedly, this activity is very important element of CRM-technology. However it realises only a part of possibilities which strategy of orientation to the client can give. Not less important role in CRM-strategy realisation is played by tools which should provide both operative, and the strategic analysis, and also a situation assessment and support of acceptance of administrative decisions in the field of marketing and sale of production of the enterprise.
Term CRM designate, as a rule, not only the information systems containing functions of management by mutual relations with clients, but also strategy of orientation to the client. The essence of this strategy consists in uniting different sources of the information on clients, sales, responses to marketing actions, market tendencies for forming of the closest relations with clients .
For the characteristic of the information technology supporting CRM-strategy, we will result the main principles lying in its basis:
1. Presence of uniform storehouse of the information in which instantly are located and from which instantly appear all data on all cases of interaction with clients are accessible.
2. Synchronizing of managements of set of channels of interaction. It is obvious that irrespective of a way of communication with the client – on an e-mail or by phone – the manager of sales should receive the exhaustive information on it.
3. The constant analysis of the collected information on clients and acceptance of corresponding organizational decisions – for example, definition of priorities of clients on the basis of their importance for the company, individual approach development to the client according to its specific requirements and inquiries.
CRM-strategy is supported by following tools:
The tools giving operative access to the data about the client in the course of interaction with it within the limits of such business processes, as sale, service, etc., and also providing gathering of this data.
CRM interactions (Collaborative CRM)
The tools providing possibility of interaction of the company with the buyers. Include a telephony, e-mail, chats, Internet forums etc.
The tools providing association of isolated data files and their joint analysis for development of the most effective marketing strategies, sales, servicing, etc. Demands good integration of systems, great volume of the turned out statistical data, good analytical toolkit.
At present the overwhelming part of CRM-systems is focused basically on operative CRM and CRM interactions. Modern IT decisions in this area allow the enterprises to collect the full information on mutual relations with clients and always to have the actual data about process of sales, about the decision of service problems of the customer, on efficiency of marketing actions.
It is clear that presence of the similar information can bring huge advantage in judgement of position of the enterprise in the market and definition of strategy of its development. Non-use in the present state of affairs analytical methods deprives of the enterprise of many possibilities of reception of profit.
In the market of CRM-systems are present as the products containing the analytical module, and products in which this module is absent. In the latter case use analytical tools of foreign developers. Such approach is extended, however there are two basic problems at its realisation:
1. Complexity of integration of software packages. Certainly, the expert in marketing should not import constantly the data from the program to the program manually. However maintenance of close integration of software packages at level of the most information system can appear rather expensive problem.
2. Application of each universal program demands enough deep and specific knowledge. For example, by means of statistical and a mathematical apparatus realised in such packages as Statistica and SPSS, it is possible to analyze and predict market laws and, for example, results of football matches with equal success. Such “omnivorous” finds the reflexion and as a part of the mathematical methods realised in these packages, but that it is even more important, and in the interface of these programs which is calculated on the qualified users who are perfectly guided in statistical and mathematical methods.
The named problems cause necessity of presence for software-tool means CRM of the analytical module, suitable for use by the expert in marketing.
Let's consider CRM and a technique of planning of marketing
We do not set as an object to show necessity of planning of marketing. Article volume simply does not allow to make it. Besides, about it it is in detail written in works [2-5]. Our purpose consists in showing, how CRM-technologies change process of marketing planning, doing by its less labour-consuming and, accordingly, more accessible.
Marketing planning can be imagined as process on which input there is data about the enterprise and the market, and on an exit – decisions on directions of development of the enterprise. Accordingly, in methodology of marketing planning it makes sense to allocate two parts: 1) gathering and data processing and 2) acceptance of administrative marketing decisions. Gathering and data processing are specific to each of the enterprises: they depend on type of the enterprise, its technological possibilities, traditions etc.
Contrary to it the methodology of acceptance of marketing decisions is similar for all enterprises working in the conditions of the market. For example, the general methodology of marketing specifies that for acceptance of marketing decisions it is necessary to segment the market. However thus it is not concretised in any way, to use at segmentation statistical methods or intuition, to use in quality segmentation variables demographic, professional or any other variables, to apply to segmentation available base of clients or to conduct external marketing researches. All these questions are solved by each enterprise for itself depending on specific conditions of activity.
According to definition CRM resulted above – it is possibility of integration and the maximum use of all sources of the data about available and potential clients. Thus, technologies CRM define first of all possibilities of gathering, processing and an information effective utilisation.
Let's consider more in detail how CRM-technologies are entered in the general process of the marketing planning which scheme is resulted in drawing .
|Use of CRM-technologies at various stages of process of marketing planning|
Marketing audit represents the process, allowing to state a complex estimation of position of the enterprise and its production in the market. This element of planning is one of the most expensive as it is connected with labour-consuming marketing researches of the external and internal environment of the enterprise. Technologies CRM give the chance to simplify process of audit of marketing considerably. The most expensive kinds of researches are market researches. Correctly organised process of data gathering about clients allows to collect their basic part in the course of daily work of all divisions of the enterprise. Thus it is necessary to realise that the in itself database gives nothing, if there are no the analytical tools making an integral part of CRM-technology. It is possible to allocate two types of such tools: OLAP (online analytical processing – the analysis of the data in a real mode of time) and Data Mining (literally “working out data”) . The means allowing quickly to submit data concern the first type, stored in a database in the necessary cut. Means concern the second type, including graphic, mathematical and statistical, giving the chance to find certain laws in data files.
Following stages of marketing planning are the formulation of the purposes and marketing strategies. The marketing purposes represent numerical indicators of sales (a gain, profit, market shares) on existing or new products and the markets on which the enterprise wishes to enter. Marketing strategies (or elements of a complex of marketing) represent ways with which help the enterprise is going to reach these purposes. Usually marketing strategies classify on four “P”: product – a product, price – the price, promotion – advancement (advertising, merchandising, etc.), place – sale (structure of the organisation of sale). In the course of definition and the coordination of the purposes and marketing strategies means analytical CRM are actively used: forecasting, what-if (“that-if”) – the analysis, the portfolio analysis, the SWOT-analysis etc. Such means solve following types of problems:
- calculation of planned profitableness and profitableness on the goods, clients, trade channels etc.;
- calculation of function of demand for concrete products;
- the forecast of sales of products taking into account the various factors influencing demand;
- optimisation of a portfolio of products and enterprise services;
- a choice of the most effective price strategy for separate segments of the market.
The closing stage of planning of marketing is working out of programs. Marketing programs – it is accurately certain set of marketing actions with rigidly registered purposes and the corresponding budget. For working out of tactics of marketing there is a whole class of the systems allocated from operative CRM – marketing information systems. They are especially effective by working out of marketing actions and actions for advancement. These means allow to plan corresponding actions, and also to supervise their performance.
In the drawing resulted above the arrow going downwards from audit of marketing to working out of programs is shown. The matter is that in the course of audit there is a check not only long-term components of activity of the enterprise, but also short-term (operative) – reaction to separate actions, an overall performance of separate divisions in CRM-system gives etc. correctly organised data gathering more than enough information for carrying out of corresponding check. Therefore by working out of the program of marketing efficiency of marketing actions for the previous planned period is as much as possible considered. Thus from the enterprise it is not required additional investments on the external market researches answering the same questions.
At last, it would be desirable to notice that management of mutual relations with clients marketing of does not settle. Being guided only on CRM, the enterprise will miss set of the market possibilities connected at least with an exit on other consumer markets. Besides, one only research of consumers hardly can win competitive struggle – it is necessary to conduct researches of actions of competitors, at least, still. Means for the similar analysis should be provided in the programs supporting marketing planning, on a level with analytical CrM-istrumentariem.
Let's consider Marketing Analytic 4 – a control system of a complex of marketing of the enterprise on the basis of CRM-technologies
Complex Marketing Analytic 4  developed by the company “Course” is CRM-system.
The problem of the majority of the programs intended for planning, consists that for qualitative performance of the functions they should unite the big data files, scattered on all divisions of the enterprise: the given manufactures, sale, external monitoring of the market etc. As a result the marketing programs intended for working out of the plan, realise only the general methodology of marketing planning and demand to enter results of already ready researches, leaving analysis process on “share” the user. At the best these programs offer tools of carrying out of the analysis, but demand manual input of a considerable quantity of the data, which search – business of the user.
There are also marketing blocks of the corporate information systems, allowing to receive a number of reports within the data collected by these systems. As a rule, in corporate systems the account of only internal work of the enterprise &ndash is conducted; sales, shipments, financial streams etc. Marketing information systems should collect also the information on potential clients, on competitors, on macroenvironment. Besides, marketing control systems should contain the analytical modules intended for processing of this information and its transfer in the forms, convenient for acceptance of administrative decisions.
At creation of complex Marketing Analytic 4 developers aspired to provide the automated data gathering, necessary for marketing planning, from a great number of sources. For this purpose, first, the block operative CRM &ndash has been created; c-Commerce, – intended for gathering of all information on the clients, necessary for the marketing analysis. Secondly, analytical modules of a complex are capable to be integrated with the majority of registration systems. In particular, module Analyzer has the status of a 1C-compatible product.
Complex Marketing Analytic 4 has modular structure. These are modules analytical CRM – Analyzer, Geo, Portfolio and Predictor, – and also the module operative CRM – c-Commerce. Each module can be used as separately, and in a complex with other modules. Besides, it can be included in other corporate systems. The data exchange scheme between modules is resulted in drawing.
|The data exchange scheme between modules of complex Marketing Analytic 4|
The module c-Commerce is intended for operative work with clients. He allows to collect the information on the clients, necessary for operative work and the strategic analysis, and also gives the chance to plan operative work of a sales department. The module contains means for flexible adjustment under enterprise specific targets. The information on sales and the marketing actions, collected in c-Commerce, arrives in Storehouse of the data. Thus the user himself chooses signs on which he wishes to analyze the sales.
Use as a control system of databases Microsoft SQL and realisation of difficult system of differentiation of access rights do the decision scaled enough, allowing to use it on a wide spectrum of the enterprises, since quickly growing enterprises of a small-scale business and finishing the large enterprises.
Module Analyzer represents the OLAP-means intended for the analysis of marketing databases. It can be the internal data about sales, the data of external monitoring of the market or any other databases. Module Analyzer contains means of the statistical analysis of the data, the block of the analysis of dynamics, the block of the multidimensional analysis allowing quickly to submit data in any cut demanded to an analytics, and also the block of calculation and the analysis of market indicators.
Module Geo contains tools of data presentation of the user on a map. The data displayed on a card, can arrive from Storehouse through module Analyzer or from other sources which are available for the user.
Module Predictor contains the tools of statistical forecasting intended first of all for marketing and sale. For module use only minimum knowledge in statistics area is required.
Predictor contains means of joint forecasting of several numbers with the account from interdependence. For example, at the forecast is sold to consider expediently influence of advertising, change of the prices and other factors. The joint analysis of numbers allows to spend what-if (“that-if”) – the analysis. In particular, it is possible to define, how sale will change at various scenarios of a price policy. Module Predictor contains also more simple methods, such as allocation of seasonal prevalence and the forecast a method of trends. The initial data for forecasting can undertake both from module Analyzer, and from other sources available for the user.
Module Portfolio is intended for carrying out of the strategic analysis of activity of firm on the basis of methodology the portfolio analysis, and also for representation of results of any marketing researches in a kind portfolio matrixes.
The portfelnyj analysis is one of the most widespread methods of the strategic marketing analysis. It gives the chance to the enterprise to define the long-term investment policy in relation to various segments of activity.
In summary we will notice that for today growing requirement of the enterprises for the specialised software in the field of marketing only CRM-systems to the full can satisfy. Possibilities of gathering and data processing should help with such systems to the experts in marketing who are not experts in programming, the statistican and the mathematician, to carry out the qualitative analysis of the marketing information, using the knowledge of the market, instead of software and mathematical toolkit.
1. A control system of interaction with clients [http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRM]
2. Lamben G.G. Strategic marketing planning. – SPb.: Science, 1996.
3. The Poppy-donald, M. Strategic marketing planning. – SPb: Peter, 2000.
4. Kartyshov S.V. “Marketing Expert” – system of support of decision-making at all development cycles of strategic and tactical plans of marketing and the control over their realisation//Marketing and marketing researches in Russia. – 1997. – #4 (10). – P. 24-39.
5. Potashnikov N.M. Consultation on process of strategic marketing//5th Russian scientifically-practical conference “Reengineering business of processes on the basis of modern information technology”. – M: Publishing house MESI, 2001.
6. The ABCs of CRM [www.cio.com/research/crm/edit/crmabc.html]
7. Malcolm McDonald. Marketing Plans. How to prepare them: how to use them. – Third Edition. – Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, 1995.
8. Kartyshov S.V., Kulchitsky I.A., Potashnikov N.M. Managing complex marketing companies on the basis of CRM-technology
The author: Челябэнергопроект
Comments of experts of Челябэнергопроект: