Designing automation – the new progressive developing process conducting to considerable change of existing technology in architecturally-building designing. The existing sequence and time of performance of separate operations in designing change, the form of representation of the information, efficiency at the automated designing considerably depends on the organisation of interaction of the person with the computer, systems of representation of a reference material. At use of separate programs the technology of traditional system of designing considerably does not vary, however there are new operations, for example, preparation of the initial data for machining, and is reduced time of performance of separate stages. Статьи
Complex automation of designing brings basic changes in technology of designing, beginning from preparation of the initial data, representation of reference materials, decision and estimation methods and before final operations, i.e. Before manufacturing and reproduction of the design-budget documentation.
Now the considerable number of project institutes of the Russian Federation already has experience of use of programs for automation of separate stages in the course of designing. Experience of complex automation of designing while is improved and consequently stable methods and procedures of such designing still definitively are not fulfilled. However a transitive link between application of private programs and complex automation of process of designing are technological lines of the automated designing (TLD) which are developed in a number of scientific research institutes of our country and abroad. TLD unite a little in common working groups (brigades) of the automated designing. Primary goal of TLD is improvement of quality of the design-budget documentation and labour productivity of designers.
By working out of projects TLD can carry out a certain complex of design works. Thus structure of TLD has two subsystems: projecting and providing. Projecting subsystems directly participate in processes of working out of the project, and providing – are engaged in technological preparation of processes of the automated designing.
The organisation, management and planning of process of designing in TLD carry out by means of the developed technological cards which have following three kinds: technological cards of designing (TCD), executive technological cards (ETC) and organizational technological cards (Quality Department). Basic of them at drawing up of line technology of designing on TLD is TCD which is made in the course of the analysis of all operations which are carried out on a technological line, with definition of terms of designing and expenditures of labour at each stage.
Basis of the organisation of process of designing is Quality Department which intend for representation of data on presence of the software and the list of the design operations making considered design process.
TLD uses a complex of the means including the computing system, the organizational technics, a communication facility.
The technological line on designing of bearing skeletons of civil buildings on the basis of AI-04-COURT series (a skeleton orthogonal) was one of the first in our country.
This technological line of designing COURT has provided release of working drawings, assembly diagrammes of the bases, overlappings, formwork and reinforcement drawings of individual elements, and also specifications, pay sheets and the budget documentation, i.e. A full set of the design documentation of a skeleton. The designer in the course of use TLD KORT only makes decisions and analyzes results, and processing of the accepted decisions, information storage (constant and received in the course of designing) carries out the computer.
The software is united in seven special blocks, each of which carries out certain functions. In block KORT-1 the information on the idealised scheme of a projected building (construction) is formed, in block KORT-2 durability and stability of a building is checked, in block KORT-3 configuration of a construction from modular elements dares, in block KORT-4 non-standard elements are projected, block KORT-5 provides reception of drawings on an output equipment of the graphic information, block KORT-6 produces the budget documentation, and block KORT-7 represents an information retrieval system of a technological line of the automated designing. The software structure allows to make to it changes and additions while in service lines.
Designed and experimentally implemented a different production line computer-aided design of large-panel residential buildings – LPB. This line is intended for the design of large-panel houses a cellular structure with a common step of cross bearing walls at the stage of technical design. With this production line background information for the design can be divided into fixed and variable. By continuing include: standards, directories, architectural and construction of parts and industrial products, the catalog of standard elements of house, etc., to variable information – characteristics that define the structure of design objects (spans, number of floors, number and types of flats, etc.). As a result of the line LPB can choose the best architectural planning and design solution and provide the necessary project documentation – drawings, specifications and estimates. Method of designing a LPB is based on extensive use of standard solutions. Design runs on six levels: 1-industrial products and parts (type, general serial) 2 – construction-planning cell (space group, the limited load-bearing structures), 3 – apartments and staircases, elevator components, 4 – floor sections (groups of apartments and staircase-lift assemblies); 5 – block-section (a set of floor-sections, united by one unit vertical ties), 6 – house (a set of block sections).
Project working out is conducted consistently from small elements to larger, i.e. The technology of designing at each level consists of configuration of elements of the given level from elements of underlaying level. At each level the indicators characterising elements of given level are defined. Thus the pas all levels of designing occurs an estimation of variants of design decisions.
Algorithms are developed for a choice only those variants which meet the requirements in advance set, for example to the standard. By means of the software-realised algorithms the indicators characterising the different parties of the design decision are defined. A complex estimation of design decisions it is possible to carry out in TLD LPB two ways: the designer who can consider additional indicators; algorithmically, by specially developed technique. Technological process provides consecutive work, conditions where the formulation of the initial data is made for designing, including the preliminary analysis and a choice of key parametres of designing; the second block of automation of search architecturally-planirovochnogo decisions with working off of plans, facades and perspective images;
The third block of the general designing of object and its calculation with delivery of assembly drawings and specifications;
The fourth block of working out of the engineering equipment with delivery of the design documentation on these decisions;
The fifth block of definition of budget cost under individual quotations and the integrated budget norms with estimate delivery.
Designing in TLD LPB is conducted in a mode of dialogue of the designer and the computer that provides operative input of commands by means of the teletype, keyboards of a control panel or a light pencil and an operative conclusion of the information to the printer or the screen of an electron beam tube (display). Working out of drawings is based on a principle of assemblage of breadboard models of drawings from separate fragments and details on special breadboard models.
In a search stage the big place occupies interaction with customers of projects, systems more a high rank, adjacent projecting subsystems of TLD. At this stage problems also are solved: gathering of the reference and standard information; formation of results of preliminary study of the project in graphic and tabular kinds (the first intermediate results); formation of variants of layout and constructive decisions, their estimation and a choice of optimum design decisions; formation of tasks of adjacent subsystems of TLD. Solved problems at this stage demand the big participation of architects in the course of designing. Means at a search stage use basically for information processing under decisions which are accepted by the architect.
In a detailed stage following primary goals dare: gathering of loadings; a choice of bearing and protecting designs; designing of knots and elements; manufacturing and release of the design documentation, and preparation of the task for working out of the adjacent documentation. On a detailed stage there is a possibility of the program decision of all listed above problems. However this stage cannot automatically be made, without participation of the person behind which there are functions of the control, updatings and estimations of received results.
Necessary condition of complex interaction of all subsystems is presence of uniform digital model of an industrial building which allows to provide system unity of all information communications of projecting subsystems. Each block contains certain structure of the data in model:
- the block “The building situation” – the information on building area, restrictions on available resources, technological and social and economic requirements to object of designing;
- the block “Object structure” – structure of elements of object and their interrelation;
- the block “Object typology” – classification of types of objects of industrial buildings to destination, floor, to operating conditions etc.;
- the block “Object topology” – possible configurations of buildings, their parts and separate elements;
- the block “The object metrics” – value of parametres of industrial buildings: flight, a step, height, the sizes of temperature blocks etc.;
- the block “Quality of object” – the technical and economic indicators characterising a project cost and its specific indicators, expenses of work, materials, conveniences of a lay-out and. Other
Let's consider list of CAD in directions.
The software for the general designing which represents a tooling for preparation of drawings in electronic form. Such systems concern AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT and other drawing programs.
Though such systems also are not high-grade systems of the automated designing, but is frequent them features the organisation performing design works, for performance of not labour-consuming problems in daily work suffices.
If you work in any specialised area it is better to familiarise with vertical decisions in various branches. Correctly chosen CAD will facilitate your daily work, will reduce time spent for performance of the project, and will lower quantity of errors and discrepancies in work.
AutoCAD – company Autodesk working out – the most widespread CAD, functioning in the environment of MS Windows. AutoCAD are the traditional tools of an engineering drawing checked up by time, 3D-modelling and the visualisation constantly supplemented with new possibilities
AutoCAD LT – the simple and accessible program for creation of simple 2D-drawings. Is simplified version of CAD AutoCAD and has essentially smaller cost in comparison with a full-function product.
ZWCAD – the system of automated designing ZWCAD, is intended for architects, engineers, designers and other experts working in CAD/CAM programs. Is analogue AutoCAD, has appeared in the Russian market in the beginning of 2007.
Let's consider the software intended for designing in machine-building branch.
You will find the information on systems 2D and 3D designing of details and assemblages of cars and mechanisms. Besides, the same decisions perfectly approach for use in instrument making.
AutoCAD Mechanical is a decision for 2D designing of details and assemblages. Completely includes features usual AutoCAD and has specialised commands for machine-building designing.
It helps to accelerate designing process, allowing to make use at the same time of experience and the projects which have been saved up at work in AutoCAD. Incorporating libraries of GOST, standard details and function of automation of typical problems, it provides a considerable prize in productivity at designing.
Ruler AutoCAD Inventor – ruler Inventor includes systems for 3D-designing not only in mechanical engineering, but also in other areas. By means of decisions Inventor you can project 3D-detail or assemblage model, to model dynamics and to spend strength model calculations, to display cables and pipes in space and to count their length, to form the documentation on the project.
Autodesk Inventor 2010 – the basis of technology of digital prototypes Autodesk – allows to leave for habitual frameworks 3D-modelling and to develop digital prototypes of the future products. This technology allows to create exact 3D-models of details and products and comprehensively to study their real behaviour even before manufacturing of pre-production models that allows to reduce expenses for designing and manufacture.
Autodesk Showcase – the software product intended for visualisation of projects at use of technology of digital prototypes Autodesk. He allows design, design and marketing collectives quickly and effectively to create exact and realistic images on the basis of the data 3D-CAD for the purpose of transfer of the conceptual information and creation of an information context for a wide audience. Participants of collectives can make decisions as on workplaces, and remotely.
KOMPAS for engineering – a complex for automation of design-technological preparation of manufacture in mechanical engineering and metal working
Let's consider CAD for designing of building designs:
1. Autodesk Revit Structure – the parallel modelling of designs providing efficiency and accuracy of processes of documenting, the analysis and designing. The vertical decision for designing of building designs on platform Revit
2. AutoCAD Revit Structure Suite – protect all investments and simplify transition to technology of information modelling of buildings, using the leading appendix for designing AutoCAD and advantages Revit Structure BIM. Includes AutoCAD, AutoCAD Structural Detailing and Revit Structure
3. AutoCAD Structural Detailing – gives means fast both effective detailing and creations of working drawings for manufacturing of steel and ferro-concrete designs. The program is a part of complex AutoCAD Revit Structure Suite and is delivered together with Autodesk Revit Structure.
4. Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis Professional – to carry out calculations of difficult building designs taking into account regional features, including calculations in conformity with the Russian norms and rules that is confirmed by the Certificate of conformity GOSSTANDARD of Russia.
5. SCAD Office – system of projecting and auxiliary programs which allow to solve in a complex questions of calculation and designing of steel and ferro-concrete designs.
6. Advance Steel – the program complex for designing of metalwork in the environment of AutoCAD.
7. StruCAD – a complex of the automated designing of building metal designs. Program means provide a full cycle of designing: creation of detailed, three-dimensional, information model of the constructive decision, detailing knots, specifications and accounting.
8. the personal computer LIRA – a program complex for numerical research of durability and stability of designs and their automated designing. Includes systems: LIRA-VISOR – for creation and the analysis of settlement schemes of any buildings, constructions and designs; LIRA-ARM – the system of designing of ferro-concrete designs realises selection of the areas of section of armature of columns, beams, plates and covers for the first and second limiting conditions; LIRA-LARM – designing of a separate ferro-concrete rod or lamellar element; LIRA-STC – designing of steel designs.
9. KOMPAS for building – the complex decision on base KOMPAS for designing and calculation of construction designs.
Let's consider CAD of objects of an infrastructure.
AutoCAD Civil 3D – the complex decision on the basis of AutoCAD for designing, registration and management of projects in various areas of civil building.
Let's consider CAD, intended for designing in area electrical engineers, i.e. PCS, an apportion and calculation of length of cables, lighting calculations, designing lightning protection and grounding, designing of systems of an electrical supply of buildings:
1. AutoCAD Electrical – the vertical decision of family AutoCAD, it is developed specially for designing of electric chains of management, PCS, мeasuring instrument, etc. This tool necessary for fast and faultless designing and editing of projects of electrical control systems. AutoCAD Electrical completely includes features usual AutoCAD
2. ElectriCS 3D – software package ElectriCS 3D is intended for automated (automatic and interactive) apportions of cables different purposes at designing, reconstruction and operation of buildings, constructions and open territories
3. Electrics Light – system Electrics Light is intended for lighting calculations
at designing of lighting installations of the industrial enterprises. Calculations are spent on a basis “the Reference book on light engineering” (under the editorship of J.B.Ajzenberga. – M: Energoatomizdat, 1983)
4. ElectriCS Storm – the system is intended for the automated designing lightning protection and grounding of buildings and constructions
5. Project StudioCS the electrician – program Project StudioCS of the Electrician is intended for automation of designing of systems of an electrical supply
6. HTE – the new appendix for designing of systems of an electric equipment under AutoCAD, intended for designing of systems of an electrical supply, an electric equipment and low-current networks of buildings (cable systems, illumination, the security and fire alarm system, telecommunication networks, etc.).
7. KOMPAS-Electrician – for automation of working out and release of the design documentation in electrotechnical and electronic industry. Works only on the basis of KOMPAS 3D or KOMPAS-Graph.
8. Questionnaire SHOT “ExOn” – the FREE program for filling of the questionnaire of the Case of the Operative Current “ExOn”
9. A case of an operative current “ExOn” – the description of a case of an operative current.
Let's consider CAD for architecture and building designing:
1. AutoCAD Architecture – all processes of working out, coordination and teamwork on creation of the exact and effective design documentation are improved at the expense of application of simple functions in use. The vertical decision for architects on platform AutoCAD.
2. Autodesk Revit Architecture – protect all investments and simplify transition to technology of information modelling of buildings, using the leading appendix for designing AutoCAD and advantages Revit Architecture. The vertical decision for architects on platform Revit.
3. AutoCAD Revit Architecture Suite – the software specially created for information modelling of buildings and working how is necessary for you, providing naturalness and freedom of designing and effective results. Includes AutoCAD and Revit Architecture
4. ArchiCAD – one of the best programs for the architectural designing, known for the simplicity, convenience and the functionality, implementing technology Building Information Modeling (BIM)
5. ArchiCAD STAR (T) 2009 is a powerful tool of information modelling of buildings (BIM) and the simple decision in use, intended for small architectural firms
6. KOMPAS for building – the complex decision on base KOMPAS for designing of architectural forms, engineering systems and networks.
Let's consider CAD for designing of engineering communications:
1. AutoCAD MEP – raise productivity, accuracy and improve coordination of works thanks to one of the best products for working out, designing and documenting of internal engineering communications. The vertical decision for designing of engineering systems of buildings on platform AutoCAD
2. Autodesk Revit MEP – the software for designing and documenting of information modelling of the buildings, providing to experts in engineering systems a natural working environment. The vertical decision for designing of engineering systems of buildings on platform Revit
3. AutoCAD Revit MEP Suite – a high efficiency combination at release of the engineering specifications provided AutoCAD MEP, and competitive advantages from application Revit MEP for information modelling in the uniform decision.
It is necessary to notice that for 4D it is possible to use managements of projects Autodesk Navisworks is the decision intended for visualisation and check of projects in real time. Autodesk Navisworks is an integral part of process of information modelling of buildings and designing of the industrial enterprises. Autodesk Navisworks allows to raise efficiency of teamwork of designers and builders as both those, and others use the uniform synchronised information model of a building.
1. Alexeys A.A. Technology and Organization of Rural Construction. – M: Stroyizdat, 1983. – 440 P.
2. CAD and office licence software [http://www.iesoft.ru]
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